Pronunciamiento participants

Participants with biographies

A (27)

B (10)

C (24)

D (8)

E (4)

F (6)

G (15)

H (6)

I (3)

J (4)

L (6)

M (18)

N (3)

O (9)

P (6)

Q (2)

R (7)

S (4)

T (3)

U (4)

V (6)

Z (2)


Participants without biographies

Unknown (2)

A (527)

B (323)

C (737)

D (173)

E (197)

F (242)

G (561)

H (203)

I (62)

J (93)

K (3)

L (382)

M (706)

N (91)

O (210)

P (448)

Q (45)

R (631)

S (462)

T (227)

U (51)

V (356)

W (9)

X (8)

Y (15)

Z (117)

José María Tornel

Lifespan: (1795 – 1853)
Profession: Regular army officer and politician


Born in Orizaba (Veracruz). Studied theology in the Colegio de San Ildefonso in Mexico City, 1810-1812. In 1813 he ran away to join the insurgency and fought in a number of major engagements. Captured by the Royalists in 1814, he was sentenced to death but pardoned. Subsequently kept under observation in the Colegio de San Ildefonso (1814), and in the Colegio Seminario Palafoxiano in Puebla (1815), from where he fled to Orizaba where he renewed his contacts with the insurgents. In 1817 he escaped arrest and went into hiding until 1821 when he joined the Plan of Iguala and became Santa Anna's secretary. Thereafter he held numerous government positions, including General Guadalupe Victoria's personal secretary, 1824-28; deputy for the Federal District, 1826-28, for Veracruz, 1829; Governor of the Federal District, 1828, 1829, 1834, and 1847; Minister Plenipotentiary in the United States, 1830-31; Member of the Supreme Conservative Power, 1838-40; Mayor of Mexico City, 1840; senator, 1850-52; and Minister of War, 1833, 1835-37, 1838-39, 1841-44, 1846, and 1853. He was also editor el El Amigo del Pueblo, founder of the Instituto de Ciencias, Literatura y Artes, president of the Compania Lancasteriana, director of the Colegio Nacional de Mineria, and the author of several key books, including a history of Mexican, Texan, and U.S. relations, a brief history of the Independent Mexico, and a play about Cicero's death. He was Santa Anna's main informer and propagandist. A consummate conspirator, he was also the leading ideologue of the santanista movement.


Leader of
Pronunciamiento de Huejotzingo (11 December 1842; Huejotzingo, Puebla)

Author of
Plan de Texca (23 March 1835; Texca, Guerrero)

Signatory of
Bases de Tacubaya (28 September 1841; Tacubaya, México D.F.)
Convenio de la Presa de la Estanzuela (6 October 1841; Presa de la Estanzuela, Hidalgo)
Acta general del ejército (2 January 1846; Ciudad de México, México D.F.)
Acta de la junta de representantes de los departamentos (3 January 1846; Ciudad de México, México D.F.)

Leader, author and signatory of
Acta de Tlaxcala (3 March 1853; Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala)