Pronunciamiento participants

Participants with biographies

A (27)

B (10)

C (24)

D (8)

E (4)

F (6)

G (15)

H (6)

I (3)

J (4)

L (6)

M (18)

N (3)

O (9)

P (6)

Q (2)

R (7)

S (4)

T (3)

U (4)

V (6)

Z (2)


Participants without biographies

Unknown (2)

A (527)

B (323)

C (737)

D (173)

E (197)

F (242)

G (561)

H (203)

I (62)

J (93)

K (3)

L (382)

M (706)

N (91)

O (210)

P (448)

Q (45)

R (631)

S (462)

T (227)

U (51)

V (356)

W (9)

X (8)

Y (15)

Z (117)

Antonio López de Santa Anna

Lifespan: (21 February 1794 – 21 June 1876)
Profession: Regular army officer and politician


Born in Xalapa, in the province of Veracruz, Santa Anna joined the Royalist Army as a cadet in 1810. Like so many creole officers he embraced the cause of independence following the proclamation of the 1821 Plan of Iguala, and was mainly responsible for liberating his home province. Once independence was achieved he led four pronunciamientos (1822, 1823, 1828 and 1832) before being elected President of the Republic. On 2 December 1822 he rebelled to demand the creation of a republic, and in the Plan of Veracruz of 6 December challenged Agustín de Iturbide’s closure of Congress. On 5 June 1823 he launched the Plan of San Luis Potosí which called for the creation of a federal republic. On 12 September 1828 he instigated the pronunciamiento of Perote which contested General Manuel Gómez Pedraza’s victory in the presidential elections, demanding that General Vicente Guerrero be made president instead. On 2 January 1832 he placed himself at the head of the Plan of Veracruz that demanded the removal of the centralist ministers in Anastasio Bustamante’s government. Having been commander general of Veracruz, 1822; San Luis Potosí, 1823 and Yucatán, 1824-1825, as well as governor of these states in 1827-29, 1823, and 1824-25, respectively, he was President on six different occasions (1833-35, 1839, 1841-43, 1843-44, 1846-47 and 1853-55), although he always preferred to retire to his haciendas in Veracruz whenever he had the chance. His military victories included repulsing a Spanish and a French invasion (1829 and 1838 respectively) and slaughtering the Texan rebels at the Alamo (1836). His defeats included the battle of San Jacinto (1836), which led to the independence of Texas, and the Mexican-American War (1846-48), whereby Mexico lost half of its national territory. His political views evolved from upholding a liberal agenda to supporting a conservative one as the different constitutions failed to give Mexico a stable political system. Exiled following his 1853-55 dictatorship, he tried unsuccessfully to return to Mexico on two occasions before he was allowed back in 1874. Having been one of the most influential caudillos in Mexico at the height of his career, he died impoverished and forgotten in Mexico City on 21 June 1876.


Relevant Recent Bibliography: Will Fowler, Santa Anna of Mexico. Lincoln, NE & London: University of Nebraska Press, 2007.

Leader of
Plan de Perote (16 September 1828; Perote, Veracruz)
Manifiesto y plan de Perote (9 September 1841; Perote, Veracruz)

Author of
Proclama del general Santa Anna (2 December 1822; Veracruz, Veracruz)
Plan de San Luis Potosí (5 June 1823; San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí)
Modificaciones al Plan de Perote (5 November 1828; Oaxaca, Oaxaca)
Bases de Tacubaya (28 September 1841; Tacubaya, México D.F.)
Carta del general Santa Anna al poder conservador (30 September 1841; Tacubaya, México D.F.)

Signatory of
Plan de Veracruz (6 December 1822; Veracruz, Veracruz)
Adhesión de varias tropas al Plan de Lobato. (24 January 1824; Ciudad de México, México D.F.)
Acta del estado de Guanajuato (18 June 1834; Guanajuato, Guanajuato)
Armisticio firmado en la Hacienda de los Morales (27 September 1841; Hacienda de los Morales, México D.F.)
Convenio de la Presa de la Estanzuela (6 October 1841; Presa de la Estanzuela, Hidalgo)

Author and signatory of
Proyecto para la pacificación sólida y estable de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos (9 December 1832; Puente de México, Puebla)
Convenio firmado entre los generales Santa Anna y Anastasio Bustamante (11 December 1832; Puente de México, Puebla)

Leader and author of
Acta que celebró en la Villa de Jalapa (26 December 1829; Jalapa, Veracruz)