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Juan O'Donojú


Juan O'Donojú (1762-1821) was born in Seville, Spain, of Irish and Spanish descent and died in Mexico City.

He was a lieutenant general and a liberal who was named minister of war by the Cortes of Cádiz during the Peninsular War. Ferdinand VII made him his aide de camp on his return from captivity in France and he went on to be appointed Captain General of Andalucía in 1820 following the re-establishment of the 1812 Constitution.

In 1821 he was made Captain General of New Spain. He arrived in Veracruz on 3 August to discover that the Plan of Iguala was being endorsed by the majority of garrisons and town councils in Mexico.

Faced with the inevitable, O'Donojú entered into negotiations with Agustín de Iturbide and co-signed the Treaty of Córdoba of 24 August 1821 whereby the independence of Mexico was recognised in exchange for the throne being offered to a member of the Bourbon dynasty.

O'Donojú went on to accompany Iturbide and his Army of the Three Guarantees as they made their way to Mexico City, and was present at the liberation of the capital on Thursday 27 September 1821.

On the 28th, O'Donojú joined thirty-three other signatories in proclaiming the independence of Mexico.

Two weeks later, on 8 October 1821, afflicted by a lung infection, O'Donojú died aged fifty-nine.

Despite O'Donojú's recognition of Mexican independence, the Spanish government would refuse to do so until 1836.

Signatory of
Acta de Independencia (28 September 1821; Ciudad de México, México D.F.)