Pronunciamiento participants

Participants with biographies

A (27)

B (10)

C (24)

D (8)

E (4)

F (6)

G (15)

H (6)

I (3)

J (4)

L (6)

M (18)

N (3)

O (9)

P (6)

Q (2)

R (7)

S (4)

T (3)

U (4)

V (6)

Z (2)


Participants without biographies

Unknown (2)

A (527)

B (323)

C (737)

D (173)

E (197)

F (242)

G (561)

H (203)

I (62)

J (93)

K (3)

L (382)

M (706)

N (91)

O (210)

P (448)

Q (45)

R (631)

S (462)

T (227)

U (51)

V (356)

W (9)

X (8)

Y (15)

Z (117)

Guadalupe Victoria


Guadalupe Victoria was born in San Ignacio de Tamazula in the province of Nueva Vizcaya (present-day Durango) and christened José Miguel Ramón Aduacto Fernández y Félix. Orphaned at an early age he was brought up by his uncle Agustín Fernández, the local parish priest.

He left home at the age of nineteen and spent a brief spell studying at the Colegio Seminario de Durango. Thereafter he studied philosophy and later law at the Colegio Seminario, the Real y Pontífica Universidad de México and the Colegio de San Idelfonso in Mexico City.

In 1811, at the age of twenty-five, he joined the insurgency under the orders of José María Morelos and participated in the siege of Cuautla and the capture of Oaxaca, becoming a leading insurgent commander, 1813-1819. Whilst leading the insurgent guerrillas in Veracruz he decided to adopt the patriotic and hopeful name of Guadalupe Victoria. Although he was initially successful in leading hit and run operations along the Xalapa-Veracruz road, by 1819, he was forced to go into hiding in the forests of central Veracruz where he remained until 1821.

Victoria opposed the Plan of Iguala because of his republican values and because of it offered the Mexican throne to a member of the Bourbon dynasty. As a result, he conspired against Agustín de Iturbide for which he was imprisoned in 1822 alongside Nicolás Bravo and Miguel Barragán.

He escaped in the same year and seconded the Plan of Veracruz, joining Antonio López de Santa Anna’s rebellion in 1822-23. Victoria was Commander General of Veracruz, 1823-1824 and 1836 and he was elected first President of the Republic, 1824-1829.

As president, Victoria attempted to govern the country impartially pursuing what were termed amalgamationist policies. He was to become the only president to complete his term in office before the election of José Joaquín de Herrera in 1848.

He retired from politics to his hacienda in El Jobo (Veracruz) once his term in office came to an end. He returned to the political scene as Senator for Veracruz, 1833-1834 and Senator for Durango, 1835. However, thereafter his services were limited to welcoming important diplomatic missions on their way to the capital.

Relevant Recent Bibliography:

Timothy E. Anna, “Guadalupe Victoria,” in Will Fowler (ed.), Gobernantes mexicanos (Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 2008), in press.

Lillian Briseño Senosiain, Laura Solares Robles and Laura Suárez de la Torre, Guadalupe Victoria primer presidente de México. Mexico City: Instituto Mora/SEP, 1986.

Signatory of
Plan de Veracruz (6 December 1822; Veracruz, Veracruz)