Pronunciamiento participants

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A (27)

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E (4)

F (6)

G (15)

H (6)

I (3)

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A (527)

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C (737)

D (173)

E (197)

F (242)

G (561)

H (203)

I (62)

J (93)

K (3)

L (382)

M (706)

N (91)

O (210)

P (448)

Q (45)

R (631)

S (462)

T (227)

U (51)

V (356)

W (9)

X (8)

Y (15)

Z (117)

Leonardo Márquez

Lifespan: (1820 – 1913)
Profession: Regular army officer


93. Leonardo Márquez (1820 – 1913) was a soldier born in Mexico City who began his career in the as a Cadet In the permanent Cavalry of Lampazos on the Northern frontier in January 1836. He fought against the United States in the Intervention of 1846 -1848 and was a prominent supporter of Antonio López de Santa Anna in the revolutionary movement of 1849. After the fall of this dictator, Márquez espoused the cause of Miguel Miramón and Félix Zuloaga against Benito Juárez. He became General in 1854 commanding a brigade in Toluca. He was exiled in 1855 for having defended the city of Ayutla against the government. He returned to the country in 1858 to be chief of the division. He espoused the French cause in 1852. He was promoted to head of the regular army by Emperor Maximilian whom he supported.

Márquez became Governor and Commander of the State of Jalisco in 1859. When Santos Degollado beseiged Mexico City and meanwhile Genaral Miramón attacked the plaza of Veracruz at that time occupied by Benito Juarez, Marquez set off with his armies for Gua¬dalajara and won the battle of Tacubaya 11 April 1859. Amongst the many prisoners slaughtered by Marquez was the distinguished poet Juan Díaz Covarrubias. Those executed became known as the Martyrs of Tacubaya and Marquez was known from then on as the Tiger of Tacubaya ‘el Tigre de Tacubaya’, although he alleged he was acting under orders from Miramón who had returned to Mexico City. The deaths of Don Melchor Ocampo and Don Leandro Valle were also attributed to Márquez.

Márquez was sent to Constantinople in 1864 and he returned in 1866. When in 1867, the French withdrew their armies he rallyed an army to defend the Empire.

In 1866, in his role as division commander (granted by Maximilian a year earlier) he was sent to Mexico City in order to create a cabinet and raise troops in aid of Querétaro. Miguel Miramón and Marquez were at constant loggerheads and when the former suggested attacking the republicans Marquez resisted.

At Queretaro joining the forces of Maximilian he pushed through the assailants and then headed for Mexico City to rally support but was unsuccessful.

Márquez then headed south with the intention of establishing his own government with the capital Puebla, however he failed again being attacked before he reached his destination. Porfirio Diaz attacked him in Mexico City. On 21 June 1867 Mexico City was attacked and Marquez came out of his hiding and headed for Veracruz then Havana. Márquez’s notoriety for viscous slaughter led to his exclusion from the 1870 political amnesty. Márquez died in 1914.


Leader of
Pronunciamiento de Sierra Alta (11 February 1849; San Agustín, Guanajuato)

Signatory of
El Primer Cuerpo de Ejército y la Guarnición de Guadalajara, protestan contra el Manifiesto del Lic. Benito Juárez (19 August 1859; Guadalajara, Jalisco)