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Plan de Montaño o de Otumba
(Estado de México, 23 December 1827)

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Plan de Montaño o de Otumba

23 December 1827

Region: Estado de México
Place: Otumba

Pronunciamiento text

Plan de Montaño o de Otumba, 23 de diciembre de 1827

Artículo 1°. El supremo gobierno hará iniciativa de la ley al Congreso general de la Unión, para la exterminación en la república de toda clase de reuniones secretas, sea cual fuere su denominación y origen.

Artículo 2°. El supremo gobierno renovará en lo absoluto las secretarías de su despacho, haciendo recaer semejantes puestos en hombres de conocida probidad, virtud y mérito.

Artículo 3°. Expedirá sin pérdida de tiempo el debido pasaporte al enviado cerca de la República Mexicana por los Estados Unidos del Norte.

Artículo 4°. Hará cumplir exacta y religiosamente nuestra constitución federal y leyes vigentes.


By the end of 1827 the factional party disputes between the Yorkinos and the Escoceses (see the context of the Plan de la guarnición de Veracruz, 31 July 1827, for a preliminary discussion of these two Masonic societies/political parties) had reached breaking point. With the Yorkinos having won the congressional elections of 1826, controlling a number of key ministerial posts in the national government, and dominating most of the state legislatures, the Escoceses found themselves resorting to extra-constitutional ways of challenging their political enemies. On 23 December 1827, three days after the draconian anti-Spanish Expulsion Laws of 20 December 1827 were approved, Manuel Montaño, launched this pronunciamiento in Otumba. Its demands were deliberately moderate and vague. His Plan called for the end of all secret societies, although everybody knew at the time that it was mainly aimed at the dominant Yorkinos. It called for a change of cabinet without specifically stating who had to go and why. In between the lines, it was again commonly known that it was the prominent Yorkinos in President Victoria's government that Montaño was hoping to see replaced by Escoceses (or as he put it: "men of renowned probity, virtue, and merit." In Article 3 he called for the expulsion of interfering U.S. Minister Plenipotentiary Joel Poinsett without naming him or mentioning that the reason the Escoceses wanted him to leave the country was because he had been instrumental in founding the Rite of York in Mexico in 1825. Last but not least, in a gesture of negotiation, the Plan stressed that it defended the constitution and the law. Days after the pronunciamiento was launched, Vice-President and Scottish Rite leader Nicolás Bravo joined Montaño and the pronunciados in Tulancingo. Unfortunately for them, the Plan of Montaño was only seconded in Veracruz by Miguel Barragán and his Escocés state-legislature. On 7 January 1828 Vicente Guerrero and Santa Anna, at the head of the government troops that were dispatched to quell the pronunciamiento, routed Bravo and Montaño's men in the battle of Tulancingo. The "terremoto de Tulancingo", as it became known, marked the end of the Scottish Rite Masons as a credible or viable political force in Mexico.



Source: José María Bocanegra, Memorias para la historia de México independiente. 1822-1846 (Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1986 [originally 1892]), vol. 1, pp. 56-57.

Transcribed by Natasha Picôt and Revised by Will Fowler.

Participants (2):

Leader role:
Nicolás Bravo
Author and signatory role:
Manuel Montaño

Pronunciamiento grievances

National (pro-constitution, against Masonic sects)

Political (pro-constitution)


Military (regular army)

Personal (against Joel Poinsett)

Other (Against certain cabinet ministers)

Related documents

Bravo, a los valientes de Montaño
Nicolás Bravo
3 January 1828

Carta de Vicente Guerrero
Vicente Guerrero
5 January 1828

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