First name

Text source

Daniel Young was born in Scotland on 20/02/1627 and arrived in Sweden from Lubeck. He is often listed as an alderman of Scottish parentage and was, in fact, the son of ship's captain Daniel Young [SSNE 4951] who had been in Dutch naval service. He arrived in Sweden at the end of the 1640s and became a burgess of Stockholm on 17 November 1649. Young initially worked as a purveyor of small wares in Stockholm (krämhandlare).

The Tobacco Trade, Söderkompaniet, Amerikakompaniet

In late 1650 Queen Kristina awarded Daniel "Liungh" and Casper Kohl, both Swedish subjects and burgesses, a royal privilege to set up a tobacco monopoly. (Earlier Söderkompaniet/Skeppskompaniet had held the tobacco monopoly between 1645 and 1649, see Benjamin Bonnel [SSNE 2579]) From 1650-4 Daniel Young and Casper Kohl had the sole rights tobacco imports in Sweden, Finland, Gotland and Halland for a four-year period at annual fee of 5,000 riksdaler. This was despite the fact that Kristina had already awarded two Dutchmen John Fock and Johan Visbeck certain rights to importing and spinning tobacco in October 1650. The four gentlemen combined forces in November 1651, forming a new tobacco company which included Daniel Young's father-in-law, Jon Amundsson, as the fifth share-holder. This new joint venture was to keep its offices and stalls in the "lower back house" of Fock and Visbeck, comprising 2 rooms and 1 cellar, located at Järntorgsgatan 6 in Gamla Stan, at a rent of 60 riksdaler.

One of the new tobacco company's first tasks was to inspect 16 barrels of tobacco held in the Söderkompaniet storehouse. There was disagreement about the value, Söderkompaniet asking 1 daler per pound, the new company offering only half. The queen intervened and a compromise was settled at 3/4 of a daler. Benjamin Bonnel sold 10,000 pounds of Stockholm-spun tobacco and 11,000 pounds of Dutch-spun tobacco at the end of May 1652.

It was not long before conflicts and trouble arose in the new tobacco company, largely involving Caspar Kohl's poor finances, and Kohl's eventual being bought out by Daniel Young. Another dispute developed between Fock and Visbeck on one side versus Young and his father-in-law on the other. Daniel Young meanwhile imported small quantities of iron bar and other minor goods, possibly for personal use.

Following Queen Kristina's abdication and her succession by Karl X Gustav, Söderkompaniet regained the monopoly on the tobacco trade. The company had changed name and was now known as Det Amerikanska kompaniet (the American company) in the hopes of supporting the Swedish colony on the Delaware, New Sweden, and familiarising Swedish merchants with American sailing routes. The company immediately returned to tobacco spinning, and following Benjamin Bonnel's departure, and Hans Kramer's temporary appointment, Daniel Young stepped in, becoming one of the directors of Det Amerikanska kompaniet. This was just as Sweden lost their only American colony to the Dutch - the last Swedish governor of New Sweden, Johan Rising, sent 14,000 pounds of tobacco back to Sweden on the Örnenin January 1655, for which Daniel Young paid 10,600 daler. Of this tobacco, 4,500 pounds had been spun by the end of March. Unfortunately the sources are bare as regards actual tobacco spinners working for the company although in November 1657 one tobacco spinner named Måns Persson was buried at Maria church cemetery. In the autumn of 1657 Daniel Young sold 5,088 pounds of Swedish spun tobacco for 1 mark per pound, reflecting the lower quality of the tobacco which had been kept in poor conditions (one man described the goods as completely destroyed). Apparently smuggled tobacco was an extensive problem for the company.

The Amerikanskakompaniet went the same way as the former, and folded. Daniel Young, since 1658 a director of the company, appears to have been running in his own enterprise, importing 7,000 pounds of tobacco from Hamburg and Lübeck with full permission from the College of Commerce. In the 1658-1600 period "husgerådsmästare" Anders Andersson, inspector for the Amerikanskakompaniet in Södermanland, Närke and Västmanland, purchased nearly 29,000 pounds of tobacco from Daniel Young. But this was precisely the period when the company began to unravel. At the 1659-60 parliament held in Gothenburg the king, Gustav X, decided to dissolve the company in the coming year, and this was done by 10 November 1660.


The Cloth Factory

Over time he became a notable businessman in Stockholm where he established a large weaving and cloth factory during the reign of Karl X. It is probably this man who was listed in Gothenburg shipping registers as Daniel Young freighting goods from that port to Stockholm in 1658. Already in 1662 Daniel and councillor Hans Olofsson Törne obtained the rights to a textile mill in Södermalm and two years later Daniel became involved in the glove factory at Tyresö and took over the running of the works. In 1663 he held the position of warehouse inspector (packhusinspector) for the city and that year he apparently recruited 18 weavers in Hamburg and the Netherlands. Two years later, on 16/03/1665, he became an assessor for the naval court. Young also became a shareholder and director in the Västervik Ship Company, the largest Swedish shipping company which owned 14 ships totalling 2,700 lasts in 1666. However, in that year, Young left the company with Jacob Momma-Reenstierna and several other shareholders taking with them six ships. Young's share of the company stood at 4,200 rdl. He then, along with Reenstiernas, took on the abdicated Queen Kristina's leasehold of land on Ösel and Gotland. Jacob Momma-Reenstierna bound his brother Abraham and friend Daniel Young into the lease. Each of the men were to be responsible for one third of the leasing sum and one third of the incomes. Abraham took over responsibility for the Gotland Office, while Young served as the contact for the Royal Court and the Board of Commerce (Kommerskollegium) with Jacob Momma-Reenstierna as Director of the project. 

By 1668 Young had established a cloth manufacturing factory in Södermalm in Stockholm which employed about 600 spinners (although Daniel's own account claims it was 1200!), 30-40 weavers and two dye/colouring works in Stockholm and, indeed, he dominated Swedish cloth manufacturing. He owned extensive tracts of land around Nytorget where he built houses and workshops and dye-works. He also recruited a further 80 master and apprentices to staff his textile mills from overseas, although he apparently only had 55 looms. 

Daniel Young had been ennobled in 1666 and was introduced in 1668 into the Swedish House of Nobility. Due to his senior position in the community, Young was appointed the leader of a trade commission sent to Gothenburg, Lubeck and Wismar in 1667 and during the next few years he wrote several letters to Jakob Momma-Reenstierna. Initially these two men were the closest of friends and were, by 1668, involved together in the manufacture of cloth and numerous other business ventures. A mainstay of the business was to be the import of salt and th export of timber with one of the targeted customers being Charles Marescoe in London. Correspondence with this merchant shows the consortium also tried to look for new markets in sandstone and lime. Resistance of the burghers of Visby at the Momma-Reenstierna enterprise led to complaints that their rights were being infringed and they found support through Gotland's governor, Lennart Ribbing. The Governor confiscated Momma-Reenstierna's goods at Slite and a series of lawsuits followed. A further complication involved Daniel's sale of his house in Södermalm to Pontus Frederik de la Gardie, despite the fact that Daniel had already pawned it to Jacob. By 1671, Momma-Reenstierna and Young had so seriously fallen out over their business arrangements that their friendship ended. A complete volume of correspondence, mostly in German, survives detailing their differences, including Young's distrust of Momma-Reenstierna's figures. It is true that Young owed Jacob 28,000 daler c.m. but Momma-Reenstierna himself owed Young 46,000 daler c.m. leaving Young with a claim of credit on him of 18,000. Two copies of their differences survive from 1671 while a whole collection of letters detailing the same after 1674 are lodged in the Momma-Reenstierna archive with others in the archive of the Kommerskollegium. Ultimately, the project failed and Jacob Momma-Reenstierna's fortunes fell into decline.

Not so Daniel Young. Between 1668-74 he served as a commissioner in the college of commerce (Kommerskollegium). From 1668 he periodically attended the Riksdag (1672, 75, 78, 82-3 and 86) and he is noted for his role in convincing the Swedish nobility to support local textile merchants over foreign suppliers. Daniel also obtained a royal contract to deliver textile to the Swedish court. From that point on his career flourished. His remit included responsibility for foreign factory workers (arbetarimport) which he conducted from his manufacturing plant in Stockholm. This was especially built in a place called Leijonanckerstorget (now Nytorget) in Sodermalm in Stockholm. The building, impressive for its day, is still in use, though erroneously called 'Malongen' after a later occupant of it (J.C. Madelon).

Around 1672 the Stirling-based merchant Patrick Thomson [SSNE 6475] moved to Sweden where he was befriended by Young. Thomson was a partner in a joint-stock company which included Andrew Russell [SSNE 143] in Rotterdam and Robert Turnbull in Stirling. Another partner was James Thomson [SSNE 6332], Partick's brother who looked after business in Norrköping. This company was important for Young in that they imported the cloth and wool into Sweden which Young then used in his factories. At time of administrative reforms in Stockholm in 1673, four individuals were appointed, each representing an official body with concerns in the city. One of these was the commissioner from the Kommerskollegium, Daniel Leijonancker who worked in the ämbetskollegium. They were appointed to observe a projected inventory-taking of the city's institutions. The following two years, 1674-75, witnessed official discussions of the Swedish textile industry "manufaktur" and its usefulness in giving work to the unemployed and homeless. Particular attention was paid to the use of orphans from the city orphanage (barnhusbarn), but also the healthy poor taken off the streets, and prisoners. A report to the king from 17 March 1675, noted that 'manufactures' established should be established in the city for the relief of the poor, and Leijonancker was specifically mentioned as having set the model at his works at Barnängen. 

Due to his work in the city, Young was also made a councillor of commerce (Kommersråd) on 17/01/1682 and sat on the commission until the autumn of 1684. He used his position to establish better trading conditions for his Scottish friends. In 1686 he ensured that Patrick Thomson was given a privilege to import wool from Scotland for five years tax free. Young and Thomson also became partners in the tobacco concern in Stockholm the same year. According to Corin, Barnängen had seen its best days by 1686, yet in 1687 Young's manufacturing plant received a contract to produce 36,000 ells of blue cloth for the army. Patrick Thomson bought in as a partner and used his connection with Andrew Russell to import fuller's earth, wool-cards, indigo and other related goods. However, not everybody within the Thomson-Russell company was happy with the partnership between Young and Patrick Thomson. In one letter from James Thomson to Andrew Russell from 13 August 1687, it is clear that the tensions were developing between the Thomson brothers. James told Russell that the partership with Young had so far gone well and made a profit. Part of the reason for this was that Young sold his cloth to the king. However, James also added that there was not many people who dealt with Leijonancker that did not get "had" by him and he felt sure his brother would end up like the rest. However, on this occasion that does not seem to have been the case. During his time in the college of commerce, Young observed that the English and Dutch were better at trade and navigation than the Swedes and that unless they got specific privilages to help them, they might as well be banned from trading. 

Young died in May 1688. Although Daniel had amassed a considerable fortune in his various exploits, the cloth trade enveloped most of it and when he died he had great debts. He had been married three times, firstly to Katrina/Catharina Jonasdotter, daughter of Jonas Amundsson, whom he married on 01/11/1649. Catharina was buried on 26/03/1661. His second wife was Magdalena/Margaretha Granatenfeldt whom he married on 14/07/1661. She was the daughter of Colonel Petter Margalli (presumably of non-Swedish origins) who was ennobled as Granatenfeldt, and his wife Catharina de Flon. Magdalena/Margaretha died on 11/09/1675. Thirdly he married Catharina Gyldenhoff on 17/12/1676, who was the daughter of Governor and Baron Baltasar Gyldenhoff and his wife Vendela Valentinsdotter. Catharina died in 1703 and was buried at Klara Kyrka. Daniel Young allegedly fathered 23 sons and nine daughters (32 children in total), one of whom was Daniel Young jnr., [SSNE 3814], and another Johan Young [SSNE 4794].  Surprisingly the majority of his children lived to adulthood.

The records from Maria Kyrka in Stockholm show that he buried Maria Persdotter's blind mother from Uhlo on 7 April 1671, and then five years later bought a grave under the east Sakrist for 1200 rixdaler on 7 June 1676. He also took responsibility for the burial of Cornet Maatren Hastsuo and buried children in his own grave in 1682. He had also buried more infants in Nicolai Kyrka between 1656 and 1667, showing that there was charity as well as business in this man's heart.



Riksarkivets ämnessamlingar. Personhistoria


Letters from his widow are here:

 Swedish Riksarkiv, Momma-Reenstierna Samlingen, Affärer och processer med nedan nämda enskilda personer, E2593 (sometimes called 2594), vol. 126, Leyon. This folder includes 1. Folder with c.60 copies of letters from Leijonancker in Swedish, German and Dutch, the earliest being a slip signed in 1656. The rest are 1665-1683. 2. Jacob Momma-Reenstierna's many notes on money owed to him by Leijonancker. 3. Leijonancker's report to Abraham and Jacob Momma-Reenstierna, 1667-1679 including his observations on Jacob Momma's figures. 4. Two identical copies of the differences between Leijonancker and Momma-Reenstierna, 1671. 5. various documents from the Young-Momma transactions, 1668-1683. 6. Bills exchanged between Young-Momma as well as sheets of accounts 1667-1670. 7. Folder of accounts of transactions 1670-1673; Swedish Riksarkiv, Momma-Reenstierna Samlingen, part C: brev till Bröderna Momma-Reenstierna ingångna skrivelser, section 2, brev till Jacob Momma-Reenstierna - E2511, 43, La-Li, 5 letters, 1667-1671 from Stockholm and Lubeck; Swedish Riksarkiv, Kommerskollegii Underdåniga Skrivelser 1651-1840 - Daniel Leijonancker, 27/04/1669, 11/1669 (regarding manufacture with Momma- Reenstierna) and 14/03/1673 (Supplication regarding the manufacture of cloth); National Archives of Scotland, Russell Papers, RH15/106/636, f1 & f7. James Thomson to Andrew Russell, 13 August 1687 and Accounts, January 1687; Johan Kileberg (ed.), Svenska Ambetsverk, Del. VI:I Kammarkollegium 1634-1718 (Norrkoping, 1957), p.67; Svenska Adelns Ättartavlor, vol. 4, p.523; Svenskt Biografiskt Lexicon, XXII, pp.452-453; Stockholm Stadsarkiv: Borgare i Stockholm, Register 1601-1650, p.39; S. Gerentz, Kommerskollegium och Näringslivet 1651-1691 (Stockholm, 1952), pp.56, 59, 139, 142, 191, 202-205, 219; Stockholms Stadsarkivet, Maria Församling, Register över Döda, 1656-1680, p.320; Stockholms Stadsarkivet, Maria Församling, Register över döda, 1681-1700, p.418; Stockholm Stadsarkiv, Klara församlings register över döda, 1680 - 1710, p.185; Stockholm Stadsarkiv, (Storkyrkan) Nikolai församling dopböker, 1623-1717, I, p.142; Stockholm Stadsarkiv, Nicolai forsamling döda, 1627-1680, pp.152-153; Leos Müller, The Merchant Houses of Stockholm, c.1640-1800 (Uppsala, 1988), pp. 60, 61, 181, 189, 230, 253; T. Fischer, The Scots in Sweden (Edinburgh, 1907), p.30; H. Marryat, One Year in Sweden, including a visit to the isle of Gotland (London, 1862), p.492; T. C. Smout, Scottish Trade on the Eve of Union (Edinburgh & London, 1963), pp.91, 112-113; C.F. Corin, Självstyre och kunglig maktpolitik inom Stockholms stadsförvaltning, 1668-1697 (Stockholm, 1958), pp.121, 137, 339, 364; C. Dalhede, Handelsfamiljer på Stormaktstidens Europamarknad (3 vols., Partille, 2001), III, cdrom; Sreve Murdoch, Network North: Scottish Kin, Commercial and Covert Associations in Northern Europe, 1603-1746 (Brill, Leiden, 2006), pp.5, 117, 119, 147, 162-163, 174-177, 184, 202-203, 211, 216-218, 224, 243, 245, 247; Walter Loewe, Tobaksspinnarna och tobaksfabrikanterna i 1600-talets Stockholm (Stockholm, 1993), p.39, 40, 42, 47, 48, 51, 75, 201.


Service record

Departed 1644-12-31
Departed 1688-05-31
Departed 1653-12-31
Departed 1683-12-31
Departed 1668-12-31, as ASSESSOR
Departed 1674-12-31