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James MacDougall / Jacob Duwall was born around 1589 in Altmark (one source notes this as Brentzlau, which is Prenzlau), one of 9 sons to Albrekt MacDougall of Mackerston [SSNE 2444]. His mother was Elsa von Bredau, his father's second wife. The Swedish Intelligencer makes much of the fact that he was born abroad of Scottish parents, though erroneously believes him to have been born in Sweden.

James MacDougall married Anna von der Berge(1565-1633) in Stockholm on 21 March 1619. Anna was the daughter of Georg Ottosson von der Berge and his wife, Elisabeth Robertsdotter von Rosen, born in Livonia.

James MacDougall began his military career as a musketeer in Swedish service, and saw action in the Polish war. He was a captain in Filip von Mansfeld's regiment in 1621 (some sources say 1614, and then a lieutenant colonel in Samuel Cockburn's [SSNE 4219] regiment in 1621). He rose quickly to become a lieutenant colonel in Henrik Fleming's Karelia/Helsinge regiment in 1624, although one source indicates he was already a colonel. The following year he became colonel for a Norrland regiment, as well as becoming colonel for a recruited infantry regiment from Västerbotten.

In 1625 James MacDougall was responsible for convoying victuals to King Gustav II Adolf's camp in Livonia in July 1625 particularly in the campaign to take Kockenhausen. He was also at Dirschau in both 1626 and 1627. In 1627 he received land from King Gustav Adolf II in recognition of his merits. However, in April 1629 Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna noted him as "lieutenant colonel" (unless this was another man with the same name) when he provided passes for two of his soldiers to return to Sweden after having been held prisoner by the enemy. He was sent to Stralsund in 1628 where he remained till 1629. Dr Bernd Warlich notes that in 1628 MacDougall served as lieutenant general under the command of Fritz Petrowitz Rosladin, commander at Stralsund of 600 men of the Norrland regiment there, although this awaits substantiation. What we know for sure is that he served as a colonel for a recruited infantry regiment, then chief of a recruited cavalry company in 1630 which accompanied King Gustav II Adolf to Pomerania. Soon after it seems that Axel Duwall [SSNE 2446] raised a new Norrland regiment which was merged with the Västerbotten one, and Axel became its colonel. 

The author of the Swedish Intelligencer notes that James Macdougall was in command of a Scottish regiment in the summer of 1630, which fought along side two other regiments of Scots commanded by James Spens [SSNE 1642] and Lord Reay, Donald Mackay [SSNE 93] respectively. In total these formed a quarter of the Swedish force fighting under Gustav II Adolf at that time. On Christmas Eve these soldiers took part in the assault of Grippenhagen (Greifenhagen, or Gryfino) and saw plenty of action over the next few months.

In 1631 James MacDougall became governor and commandant at Frankfurt an-der-Oder by September. In December Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna contacted him about the alleged assembling of Polish troops by Posen, and sent him two companies of dragoons complete with supplies for the horses. In January 1632 the Chancellor interceded on James MacDougall's behalf with the Brandenburg chancellor, requesting that the colonel not be hindered in his attempts to levy soldiers for his dragoon regiment. The following year he also became a colonel for a non-Swedish dragoon regiment (mostly Brandenburg's men), of which some 200 men were probably recruited in Scotland with the permission of the Scottish Privy Council. 1632 also saw him as general of a Swedish force and 'överkommendant' (military governor) in Schlesien, and as part of this he was ordered to lay siege to the convent (nunnery) at Leipss (Lebus, a district of Wohlau in Silesia) on the Oder in December that year. MacDougall presented the insolvent convent of Lebus to his wife, Anna. 

After Anna von der Berge's death the art collection and library were transferred to Stettin. Patrick Ruthven [SSNE 3413] noted him as "Ane Scottis man... borne heir, commander of the Swedish and Brandenburgers". It is of interest to note that in May 1633 Chancellor Oxenstierna described MacDougall as someone who was only concerned with his own profit! 

This all coincided with a time when MacDougall obviously felt "under-appreciated" by the Swedes, as there was some discussion regarding his actual rank and position: was it as commander in chief or as commandant/governor-general? MacDougall was upset enough to threaten to leave the Swedish army, which Oxenstierna hastened to dissuade him from doing, describing him as "en redelig Sveriges invohnere" (a true citizen of Sweden). MacDougall went on to capture 'Lemberg' in August 1633 but was himself captured at Steinau on 1 October that year. MacDougall was apparently drunk at the time of capture and Imperial commanders disdainfully referred to him as a "dipsomaniac of spirits". Axel Oxenstierna also said of MacDougall that he was a light-headed military daredevil, dipsomaniac and rapacious, but excused them as "human" traits. He subsequently escaped from captivity near Schlackenwitz in mid-November 1633 and went to Brieg (Brzeg), where the Saxon colonel Mortiz Adolf von Dehn-Rothfelser was in command. MacDougall went on to successfully conquer Ohlau, and then recruited new troops in Breslau in December 1633. He took 1500 men and 4 cannon to Oels and conquered the town on 16 March, dispersing the Imperial occupation force of 15 companies. MacDougall is erroneously noted to have captured the towns Furth, Eshelcham and Neukirchen. 

James MacDougall died shortly afterwards in Oppeln on 9 May 1634, apparently of alcoholism, and was buried in St Nicolai church in Stralsund, and his armour used to hang above his memorial stone. In 1642 the Swedish treasury investigated whether MacDougall owed the Crown money for land he had bought in 1630 from King Gustav II Adolf. Apparently only 9000 of a 17,000 riksdaler bill had been settled and his descendants became responsible for the remainder. When a representative appeared before the treasury he explained that MacDougall had never received all the property he had bought and that salmon fishing taxes had been wrongly calculated in the final sum, which accounted for some of the discrepancy.

Despite the various financial issues, James MacDougall was eventually ennobled as baron Duwall in 1674, 40 years after his death, and his sons were introduced to the House of Nobility under nr.64.

A portrait of James Macdougall from 1626, attributed to Nicolas de la Fage, hangs at Karlsberg castle, Stockholm, now the Swedish Military Academy where young cadets are trained to be officers.. He is probably the same as Colonel J. Duval listed by Fischer as having a regiment 2,351 strong in 1625, but who were down to 1,216 the following year. His three sons were Gustav Duwall (1630-1691/2) [SSNE 1723], a skilful diplomat and administrator, and Jakob Duwall (1625-1684) [SSNE 1640] later county governor of Osterbotten. There was a third brother George Duwall [SSNE 3500] of whom not so much is known.


Letter: Axel Oxenstierna to James MacDougall, 9 July 1633 [RAOSB, IX] “Jag hafver gierna förnumedt, thet I åther edher åth Schlesien till armeen begifvit hafva, inthet tviflendes, at I så härefter som för thette såsom en redelig Sveriges invohnere edher låten anläget vara, allt thet, som fädernesslandzsens och thet gemene väsendetz bäste fordra kan, till önskelig uthgång at dirigera. Mig hafver fuller nogot sällsampt förekommidt, at I edher resa så längie hafva differerat. Och undrar mig inthet minder, at I eder så besvärligen thertill ändligen hafva låtedt beveka. Jag hadhe förmeent, at edher så väll som andra redelige patrioter böör medh höghste eftertrachta, huruledhes thette värcket, som så lyckeligen ähr begynt, medh slaig K. M:z (höglofligst i åminelsse) blodh bekräfftat och numere igienom Gudz nådige bijståndh bracht i tämmeligit godt tillståndh, till een godh uthgång motte blifva befordrat, efter som jämpte fädernesslandzsens allmenne interesse och edhert egiet theruthinnan inthet ringa verserar. Och forthenskuldh förmodat, at I uthi thenne besvärlige tijdhen fast mere skulle låtha edher vara befalat, alla difficulteter at afhielpa, än at I, antingen föredher person eller elliest, skulle sökia them at förökia. Män liquäll såsom jag seer, at I på een sijda hafva trögdt accommoderat, så marker jag ännu, at I eder besvärlige och otijdege anfordrandhe inthet kunna ställa tillbakars. Nu när I veta, at armeerne migh alle liggia på halssen, och at medlen till sakernes uthförning på alla orter ähre förtagne, mast igienom then store disorder och egennyttigheet, som hoos en och annan till landzsens[,] the nyttia skulle[,] fördärff inrijtat ähr, anholla I först om edhert privat contentement, hvilket ehuru väll jag vill låta vara i sitt värdhe, så bordhe edher doch möijeligheten therjämpte considerera, och fast mere sielff föllia mit exempel till gemeene fädernesslandhsens tiänst, medel och uthvägar sökia, at allt kan väll uthföres, tå edher tiänst bådhe för edher och edre arfvinger i thet gemeene väsendetz erhollandhe noghsampt blifver betalltt och vedergullen. Hvarföre jag och vill vänligen af edher hafva begärat, at I nogot ville patientera, och ickie af mig thet, som mig eij ähr giorligit, anmodha, efter som ther I mijne besväär ville öfverväga, I skulle fast mere hafva orsack, mijn tunga at lätta, än mig vijdere at belasta. Och vill jag förmoda, at I medh the 6,000 r:daler som I nyligen af H. Steen Bielke hafva bekommidt, inthet lijtet ähre hulpne. Hvad till thet andra armeens underholdh i gemeen anlanger, ville jag inthet tvifla, om allt hadhe medh ordre och af godh intention så blefvet in publicum användt, som icke allenast een deel penninge-contributioner uthan och vivers till privat nyttor af een och annan kunne vara distraheredhe, så skulle armeen ickie allenest inthte hafva at kalag, uthan, tvertemoot at den nu ähr försvagat, mykit vara förbättrat. Jag hafver affärdat gen.-commiss. Kempendorff, edher uthi armeens underholdh och contentement at adsistera. Män om I ville sielfve betänckia, hvadh ähra och berömm, och hvad recompens I sielfve therigienom kunna förvärfva, hvar alla medel, som opåtänckias och fines kunna, till armeens increment blefve employeredhe, tvifler jag inthet, at then fast minder orsack skulle få at klaga, än härtill, ty värr, skiedt ähr. Jag vill förmoda, at I till armeens conservation och förbättring inge medel vardha uthelåtandes, och hvadh mig möijeligit ähr at giöra, skall af mig inthet blifva förgätedt.Thet I elliest förmeena, edher så för ålderdomb och annan svaghet som enkannerligen at edher respect för andra edher adjungeredhe generaler förminskat varder, ey kunna länger tiäna, uthan fast heller såge, at I motte blifva dimitteredhe, förundrar mig och inthet lijtet, efter som I väll vete, at I sielfve thermo havfa anhollet, att edher nogon till biståndh motte blifva förordnat. Om I thet rätt vele betänckia, så blifver edher respect härigienom intet förklenat, then I inthet minder nu än förr kunna excolera. Män at quittera nu vidh nährvahrende tillståndh för nogor fåfäng jalousie skuldh fädernesslandzsens tiänst, veet jag ickie om thet försvarligit vara kan. Jag vill fast mere förmoda, och edher vänligen förmanadt hafva, att I uthi thenne fahrlige tijdhen låta edher om armeens och fädernesslandzsens theraf dependerandhe interesse omvårdha och hafva thertill all flijt och mädha ospart. Hvilket jag edher vänligen ey hafver kunnadt förholla. Befalandes etc. Aff F:furt am Main then 9 julii 1633 etc.”



The Swedish Intelligencer: The First Part (London, 1632), p.49; The Swedish Intelligencer: The Fourth Part (London, 1633), pp.157-158; The Continuation of the German History: The Fifth Part (London, 1633), pp.8-11, 127; The History of the present Warres of Germany: A Sixth Part (London, 1634), pp.9-10; The Modern History of the World. Or An Historical Relation of the most memorable passages in Germany, and else-where, since the beginning of this present Yeere 1635 (London, 1635), A2-A3 

Swedish Krigsarkiv, Muster Roll, 1621/4; 1624/5; 1625/4-6; 1626/4,5,7,9; 1628/12,13; 1629/22-24; 1630/18, 34-36,38; 1631/22; 1632/22; Swedish Krigsarkiv, KRA/0035:0166, Duwalska Arkiv Jacob Duwall (1589-1634), one volume; Uppsala University Library, Palmskioldiska Samlingen, vol. 159, p.49 and vol.225, p.1; National Archives of Scotland, GD 246/26/5/21. Patrick Ruthven's account of the German Wars, July 1633; NAS, GD406/1/9295. James Ramsay to Marquis Hamilton re Governor Colonel Macdougall, 18 September 1631; Swedish Riksarkiv, Strödda militiehandlingar före 1631, Armen, 1619-1631; Register of the Privy Council of Scotland, 2nd series, vol. IV, 1630-1632. 27 July 1632; Swedish Riksarkiv, P. Sondén, Militärachefer i svenska arméen och deras skrivelser; Svenska Adelns Attartavlor, vol. 2, p.356.

Rikskansleren Axel Oxenstiernas skrifter och brefvexling, first series, III, pp.116, 118, 121; ibid, IV, pp.746, 748; ibid, VI, pp.562-3, 581-3; ibid, VII, pp.1, 2, 6, 570, 573, 574-6, 682, 738, 753-6, 789; ibid, VIII, pp. 23, 133, 146, 330, 334, 335, 337, 339, 342, 61; ibid, IX, pp.93, 94, 163-4, 346; ibid, X, pp.585-7; G. Elgenstierna, Svenska Adelns Ättartavlor, vol. 2, p.355.

T. Fischer, The Scots in Sweden (Edinburgh, 1907), p.87; J. Berg and B.Lagercrantz, Scots in Sweden, (Stockholm, 1962); S. Hedar, Kammarkollegiets Protokoll, vol.3 (Stockholm, 1941), pp.405-6; U. Pauli, Det Svenska Tyskland, (Norrtalje, 1989) p.87; H.O. Prytz, Historiska Upplysningar om svenska och norska armeernas regementer och kårer jemte flottorna, II, (Stockholm, 1868), pp.576-578; Steve Murdoch, Network North: Scottish Kin, Commercial and Covert Associations in Northern Europe, 1603-1746 (Brill, Leiden, 2006), p.58 

Correspondence concerning him (and using MackDuwall) is found here: Riksarkivets ämnessamlingar. Personhistoria


Many thanks to Dr Bernd Warlich for his various additions (Albrekt's wife's name; the correction of MacDougall's birthplace; the names Greifenhagen and Lebus; MacDougall's wife's receipt of the convent; and in particular the references to MacDougall's ultimately lethal alcoholism). Dr Warlich further corrected the misconception of MacDougall's role in capturing the Bavarian towns in 1633, explaining that this action was undertaken by Taupadel, who was often confused with MacDougall in the sources. Dr Warlich's references are: Handbuch der historischen Statten Deutschlands X: Berlin Brandenburg (Stuttgart, 1995), pp.3203-3225; ibid. XII,Mecklenburg-Pommern, (Stuttgart, 1996), pp 54-9, 193-200 and 373ff; Handbuch der historischen Statten Schlesiens, (Stuttgart, 2003), p 278; Arnold Gaedeke, Wallensteins Verhandlungen mit den Schweden und Sachsen 1631-1634, (Frankfurt am Main), p.210; Georg Irmer, Die Verhandlungen Schwedens und seiner Verbundeten mit Wallenstein und dem Kaiser, Leipzig, 1889, vol.II, p.43. Felix Barner, Gustav Adolf Der Lowe aus Mitternacht, (Augsburg, 1996), pp.300-301; Theatrum Europaeum, vol.III, p.186; Johann Heilmann, Kriegsgeschichte von Bayern, Franken, Pfalz und Schwaben, vol. II, (Munchen, 1868), p.428; Peter Engerisser, Von Kroncach nach Nordlingen, Der Dreissigjahrige Krieg in Franken, Schwaben under Oberpfalz 1631-1635, (Weissenstadt, 2004), pp. 207-214, footnote 127. 


Service record

Arrived 1607-01-01, as MUSKETEER
Departed 1620-12-31, as CAPTAIN
Capacity OFFICER, purpose MILITARY
Arrived 1621-01-01, as LT. COLONEL
Departed 1623-12-31, as LT. COLONEL
Capacity OFFICER, purpose MILITARY
Arrived 1624-01-01, as LT. COLONEL
Departed 1624-12-31, as LT. COLONEL
Capacity OFFICER, purpose MILITARY
Arrived 1625-01-01, as COLONEL
Departed 1634-12-31, as MAJOR GENERAL
Capacity OFFICER, purpose MILITARY
SWEDEN, STRALSUND (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern)
Arrived 1630-01-01, as COMMANDANT
Departed 1630-12-31, as COMMANDANT
Arrived 1631-08-01, as GOVERNOR
Departed 1631-12-31, as MAJOR GENERAL
Capacity GOVERNOR, purpose MILITARY
Arrived 1632-01-01, as OVER COMMENDANT
Departed 1634-12-31, as OVER COMMENDANT