Whitekirk / Hamer Parish Church

Whitekirk Church, exterior, from south

Summary description

In its final form a cruciform church with a central tower; the stone-vaulted fifteenth-century chancel is the earliest identifiable part. In works of 1832 transeptal offshoots were added; major restorations undertaken in 1884-94 and 1914-17.

Historical outline

Dedication: Our Lady

The church, which was originally known as Hamer, was granted to the canons of Holyrood Abbey in 1128 x 1136 by King David I and confirmed to them probably around 1140 x 1153 by Bishop Robert of St Andrews.(1)  Further confirmations followed in 1165 x 1166 and 1165 x 1171 by Bishop Richard and King William, with a further episcopal confirmation in 1240 by Bishop David de Bernham.(2)  A form of appropriation had occurred before 1251, but in that year as part of his arrangements for the provision of vicarages at those churches united to Holyrood in proprios usus, Bishop de Bernham instead permitted the canons to serve Whitekirk with either suitable chaplains or one of their number.(3)  The canons seem usually thereafter to have exercised that latter option and accordingly the church is not recorded in any form in the accounts of the papal tax-collector in Scotland in the mid-1270s.  It was recorded in the 1290s tax-roll for the archdeaconry of Lothian, occurring as a possession of Holyrood and valued at £23 7s 3d.(4)  In accounts of a raid on the church in 1356 (see below), it was stated that two canons of Holyrood were serving at Whitekirk at that date as ‘keepers’.(5)

The relatively low value of the church recorded in the 1290s does not appear to reflect any of the wealth which flowed to Whitekirk on account of the important cult centre of the Virgin Mary that was focussed on an image held within the church.  The status of the church as a cult centre is illustrated by the near-contemporary Gesta Annalia attributed to ‘John of Fordun’ and in Walter Bower’s account of a raid on Whitekirk by English sailors in 1356.  The ‘Fordun’ narrative records how the sailors ‘stripped the image of the Virgin…which was decked with gold rings, necklaces and armlets and other ornaments wherewith the oblations of the faithful had becomingly loaded it’. Shortly afterwards, the crew of the ship that had ‘dared to lay hands on the Lady of the World’, were drowned in the Firth of Forth.(6)  The draw of the church was reinforced by a papal letter of 13 January 1386 which granted an indulgence of one year and forty days to all who visited the church of St Mary of Whitekirk, ‘which is situated at a day’s journey from the English border and is renowned for the miracles worked at it’, on certain named principal feasts of the year.  This was extended to an indulgence of three years and three quarantines if the visit took place on the four principal feasts of the Blessed Virgin Mary, namely her Nativity [8 September], the Annunciation [25 March], her Purification [2 February], and her Assumption [15 August], and of fifty days during the octaves of these feasts, and the six days after Pentecost, and contribute towards its maintenance.(7)

Following a petition made to him by King Robert III on behalf of Holyrood, on 29 April 1397 Pope Benedict XIII wrote to the abbot of Melrose, instructing him to appropriate the parish church of St Mary of Hamer to the abbey, which was described as ‘near the marches of England and whose revenues are diminished by the incursions of the English’.(8)  The mandate to the abbot of Melrose noted that Holyrood had held the church ‘for time beyond memory’ and that it had been served by a chaplain.  The legal process made by the abbot of Melrose in January 1398 concerning the annexation of the church in proprios usus, noted that the canons had supplicated that it should be annexed to their common table.  He confirmed the union, granting the canons the right to serve the church with a secular chaplain or one of the religious of their house, and united it to their common table.(9)

Whitekirk’s fame as a pilgrimage centre had become widespread by the fifteenth century and in 1435 it received one of its most famour visitors, Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini, the future Pope Pius II.  He later recounted how he had walked barefoot in winter to the shrine from his landing-place at Dunbar, allegedly contracting in the process the cold-related damage to his legs which troubled him in later life.(10)  Despite Piccolomini’s experience, pilgrims continued to flock to the church and a further indulgence was granted on 3 February 1470.(11) The letter answering the supplication for the indulgence recorded that in the parish church of St Mary of Hamer, to which many pilgrims came on account of their great devotion towards that church, many miracles were carried by the intercession of the Virgin.  The indulgence was granted for all those visiting the church on the feasts of the Assumption of St Mary, St Michael, Whitsun, and on the second and third feasts after Whitsun, and who made offerings towards the restoration of the fabric of the church.

James IV included regular visits to Whitekirk from at least 1497 in his annual circuit of the major shrines of his kingdom.  His visits usually formed part of a wider tour into the eastern marches but normally involved overnight stays at Whitekirk.  In 1505, for example, he stayed overnight on 18/19 March, when he gave £3 to the priests on the first day of his visit and made an offering of 9s on the second.(12)  James had a second extended stay there on 17-19 September, again making an offering of £3 to be disposed of through the hands of his almoner, Sir Andrew Makbrek on the first day, and then receiving 20s from his purser on the night of 18 September to play cards with.(13)  He also sent Sir Alexander Bruce on 22 June 1505 with an offering of 14s to be made on his behalf at the shrine.(14)

The union of the church to the abbey remained effective at the Reformation.  At that time the parsonage was recorded as lying with Holyrood, but set for £58 13s 4d.  The vicarage was set in assedation to Oliver Sinclair by the vicar, sir Thomas Christison, the value being £10 annually.(15

Notes

1. Liber Cartarum Sancte Crucis (Bannatyne Club, 1840), nos 1, 2 [hereafter Holyrood Liber].

2. Holyrood Liber, nos 13, 76; Regesta Regum Scottorum, ii, The Acts of William I, ed G W S Barrow (Edinburgh, 1971), nos 39, 40.

3. Holyrood Liber, no.75.

4. The Correspondence, Inventories, Account Rolls and Law Proceedings of the Priory of Coldingham, ed J Raine (Surtees Society, 1841), cxii.

5. Johannis de Fordun, Chronica Gentis Scotorum, ed W F Skene, ii (Edinburgh, 1872), 364 [hereafter Chron Fordun]

6. Chron Fordun, ii, 364-5; Walter Bower, Scotichronicon, ed D E R Watt and others, vii (Aberdeen, 1996), 291-293.

7. Calendar of Papal Letters to Scotland of Clement VII of Avignon 1378-1394, ed C Burns (Scottish Record Society, 1976), 112.

8. Calendar of Papal Letters to Scotland of Benedict XIII of Avignon 1394-1419, ed F McGurk (Scottish History Society, 1976), 71.

9. Holyrood Liber, no 110

10. Mémoires d'un Pape de la Renaissance, Les Commentarii de Pie II, eds I Cloutas and V Castiglione Minischetti (Tallandier, 2001), 49-50.

11. Calendar of Scottish Supplications to Rome, iv, 1447-1471, eds A I Dunlop and D MacLauchlan (Glasgow, 1983), no.1427 (p.431).

12. Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland, iii, 1506-1507, ed J B Paul (Edinburgh, 1901), 57 [hereafter TA, iii].

13. TA, iii, 65, 161.

14. TA, iii, 61.

15. J Kirk (ed), The Books of Assumption of the Thirds of Benefices (Oxford, 1995), 91, 169.

Summary of relevant documentation

Medieval

Synopsis of Cowan’s Parishes: The church was granted to Holyrood by David I c.1128-30. In 1356 the church was served by two canons. It was confirmed in proprious usus in 1398 and a vicarage was erected thereafter, the parsonage continuing with the abbey.(1)

1140x53 Church confirmed to Holyrood Abbey by Roger, bishop of St Andrews.(2)

1165x66 Church included in confirmation by Richard, bishop of St Andrews, of all the churches given to the abbey by David I, Malcolm IV and bishops Aernald and Robert of St Andrews.(3)

1165x71 Church confirmed to the abbey by William I as a gift by David I.(4)

1248 Church included in confirmation of possessions of the abbey by David de Bernham, bishop of St Andrews.(5)

1250 Charter by Roger de Quincy confirming the grant of the church to the abbey by a previous lord of Tranent.(6)

1251 Vicarage settlement by David de Bernham, bishop of St Andrews; parsonage with abbey, and vicarage served by a canon.(7)

1268 Church included in confirmation of the possessions of the abbey in the diocese of St Andrews by Gameline, bishop of St Andrews.(8)

1355 Fordun records that during the English invasion of that year sailors ‘stripped the image of the Virgin…which was decked with gold rings, necklaces and armlets and other ornaments wherewith the oblations of the faithful has becomingly loaded it’. Shortly after the crew of the ship that had ‘dared to lay hands on the Lady of the World’, drowned in the Forth (story also features in the Scotichronicon).(9)

1397 Appropriation at the petition of Robert III and of the abbot and canons of Holyrood, whose revenues have been diminished by the incursions of the English, of the parish church of St Mary of Hamer, which the said abbey has held for time beyond memory and which is served by a chaplain.(10)

1398 Church confirmed to the abbey in proprious usus, vicarage settlement, served by a canon.(11)

#1497 Visit to the church by James IV, makes payments for masses.(12)

1545 Presentation of Thomas Crichton to the church, vacant by death of William St Clair.(13)

References to liturgical provision/architecture/building, indulgences etc

1386 Indulgence. 1 year and 40 days for those who visit the church of St Mary, renowned for miracles, on the feasts of the Blessed Virgin Mary, her nativity, Annunciation, Purification and Assumption, to run for 3 years.(14)

1470 Indulgence at Whitekirk ‘to which a great number of the faithful resort, because of the great devotion they bear for the church and on account of the frequent miracles carried out their by the intercession of the Virgin, indulgence to run for 7 years on the feasts of the Assumption  and of St Michael. Indulgence needed to help repair fabric of the church.(15)

Post-medieval

Books of assumption of thirds of benefices and Accounts of the collectors of thirds of benefices: The Parish church parsonage with Holyrood, set for £58 13s 4d. Vicarage held by Thomas Cristesoun, £10.(16)

1569 (3 Mar) Criticisms of Adam Bothwell, Bishop of Orkney before the General Assembly include the accusation that two kirks in his care, Falkirk and Whitekirk, with 300 souls each, ‘that never heard the word twice preached, nor received the sacraments, since the Reformation’.(17)

1654 (25 July) Visitation of the church by the Presbytery of Dunbar (no reference to fabric).(18)

1665 (31 May) At a meeting of the Presbytery of Dunbar, the representatives of the various parishes are asked to report to the session of the condition of their kirks and manse; Robert Lauder reports that the kirk is not yet repaired, since it was defaced by the English, but that the manse is sufficient.(19)

1668 (25 Mar) Visitation of the church by the Presbytery of Dunbar finds that the kirkyard dykes are ruinous, that there was no pulpit and other things required for divine service were wanting. None of the heritors were present for the visit. The representative of the Laird of Whitekirk states that he is prepared for his part that the church should be repaired in the manner as it was before, or by building of a west wall or both ways or any other ways should be considered by common consent.(20)

1673 (31 July) Visitation of the church by the Presbytery of Dunbar, the minister describes the condition of the church as not provided with seats, that they wanted cups and table clothes (commission organised to speak to the heritors).(21)

1683 (25 Sept) Visitation of the church, requested by the minister, finds the ruins of the church and steeple; £400 Scots is required, stent to be organised. £4 already expended for repairs of the glass windows of the church. They also mention a partition wall with the church, between the two west pillars of the steeple is necessary, at only a small expense.(22)

1761 (23 Aug) The kirk session of Tyninghame noted that on this day the annexation of the parish to Whitekirk took place [no further references to the union in presbytery or either parish’s session accounts].(23)

[The parishes of Tyninghame and Whitekirk were united in 1761; long before this Auldhame had been annexed to Whitekirk]

Statistical Account of Scotland (James Williamson): [No reference to church buildings]

New Statistical Account of Scotland (Rev James Wallace, 1835): ‘The present church of Whitekirk is a very venerable edifice, surmounted by a square tower, and lately put into excellent repair. It is supposed to have been built before the end of the fifteenth century’.(24)

Notes

1. Cowan, The parishes of medieval Scotland, 209.

2. Holyrood Liber, no. 2.

3. Holyrood Liber, no. 13.

4. RRS, ii, no. 39 & 40.

5. Holyrood Liber, no. 76.

6. Holyrood Liber, no. 79.

7. Holyrood Liber, no. 75.

8. Holyrood Liber, no. 77.

9. Chron Fordun, ii, 365, Chron. Bower, vii, 291-93.

10. CPL, Ben, 71.

11. Holyrood Liber, no. 110.

12. T.A, i, 172 & 337.

13. Holyrood Liber, no. App, ii, no. 27.

14. CPL, Clem, 112.

15. CSSR, v, no. 1427.

16. Kirk, The books of assumption of the thirds of benefices, 91 & 169.

17. Acts and Proceedings of the General Assemblies of the Kirk of Scotland, i, 163.

18. NRS Presbytery of Dunbar, Minutes, 1652-1657, CH2/99/1, fols. 101-102.

19. NRS Presbytery of Dunbar, Minutes, 1657-1684, CH2/99/2, fols. 115-116.

20. NRS Presbytery of Dunbar, Minutes, 1657-1684, CH2/99/2, fols. 138-139.

21. NRS Presbytery of Dunbar, Minutes, 1657-1684, CH2/99/2, fol. 183.

22. NRS Presbytery of Dunbar, Minutes, 1657-1684, CH2/99/2, fols. 282-283.

23. NRS Tyninghame Kirk Session, 1747-1762, CH2/359/6, fol. 113.

24. New Statistical Account of Scotland, (1835), ii, 39.

Bibliography

NRS Presbytery of Dunbar, Minutes, 1652-1657, CH2/99/1.

NRS Presbytery of Dunbar, Minutes, 1657-1684, CH2/99/2.

NRS Tyninghame Kirk Session, 1747-1762, CH2/359/6.

Acts and Proceedings of the General Assemblies of the Kirk of Scotland, 1839-45, ed. T. Thomson (Bannatyne Club), Edinburgh.

Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland, 1877-1978, ed. T. Thomson et al (Scottish Record Office), Edinburgh.

Calendar of Papal letters to Scotland of Benedict XIII of Avignon, 1976, ed. F. McGurk, (Scottish History Society) Edinburgh.

Calendar of Papal letters to Scotland of Clement VII of Avignon, 1976, ed. C. Burns, (Scottish History Society) Edinburgh.

Calendar of Scottish Supplications to Rome 1447-71, 1997, ed. J. Kirk, R.J. Tanner and A.I. Dunlop, Edinburgh.

Cowan, I.B., 1967, The parishes of medieval Scotland, (Scottish Record Society), Edinburgh.

Fordun, Johannis de, Chronica Gentis Scotorum, 1871-2, ed. W. F. Skene, Edinburgh.

Kirk, J., 1995, The books of assumption of the thirds of benefices, (British Academy) Oxford.

Liber Cartarum Sancte Crucis, 1840, ed. C. Innes, (Bannatyne Club), Edinburgh.

New Statistical Account of Scotland, 1834-45, Edinburgh and London.

Regesta Regum Scottorum, Acts of William I (1165-1214), 1971, Edinburgh.

Scotichronicon by Walter Bower in Latin and English, 1987-99, D. E. R. Watt, Aberdeen.

Architectural description

There was presumably a church to serve the parish of Whitekirk, which was originally known as Hamer, by the time of its grant to the Augustinian abbey of Holyrood by David I at a date between 1128 and 1136; that grant was confirmed by Bishop Robert in about 1130.(1) Canons from the abbey appear to have served the cure, but at a date after 1398 a vicarage was established.(2)

The church suffered an attack by the forces of Edward III in the ‘Burnt Candlemas’ of 1356, though the soldier who stole a ring from the statue of the statue of the Virgin is gleefully said to have been killed by a falling crucifix, while in more general retribution the Virgin was believed to have scattered the English fleet.(3) It is not known if the building itself suffered significant damage at that time, since what is now seen is likely to be later in date.

By the early fourteenth century there was evidently a cult of the Virgin that associated both with the church and with a nearby sacred well, and by 1386 the cult was sufficiently established for Pope Clement VII to grant an indulgence to pilgrims who gave alms.(4) Perhaps the best known pilgrim was the humanist scholar and diplomat Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini, the future Pope Pius II, who in 1435 walked here barefoot in thanksgiving for being saved from shipwreck, and who was left with permanent rheumatism for his pains. That inveterate pilgrim James IV is also known to have visited, in 1491 and 1497.(5)

The only two indicators of the dates of the church’s medieval construction are difficult to reconcile. According to one account the chancel was rebuilt by Adam Hepburn in 1439.(6)

However, arms above the circular window in the east gable, in which a fess is the principal charge, and behind which there is a pastoral staff, are assumed to be those of Abbot Archibald Crawford of Holyrood (1450-84), and they do appear to be the same as the arms on the stone screen at the east end of the north nave aisle at Holyrood itself.(7) The same arms appear to have been on the nearby tithe barn at Whitekirk,(8) suggesting that Crawford may have been undertaking a campaign of works at the abbey’s buildings within the parish. Some support for work in the time of Crawford may be found in the grant of an indulgence of 1470 towards repairs to the fabric.(9)

In 1633 the parish was granted to the newly created bishopric of Edinburgh,(10) though on the suppression of the diocese the patronage passed to the crown. By the seventeenth century only the chancel was in use for worship, while the nave served as a school. Repairs were said to be necessary in 1665 and 1683, and on the latter occasion it was urged that a partition wall should be built on the west side of the crossing.(11)

In 1761 the parish was united with that of Tyninghame, and a number of furnishings were brought to Whitekirk from there. These included a fine gallery front with seven cusped arches carried on fluted pilasters and separated by balusters carrying consoles, which was set within the arch opening off the crossing into the north transept.(12)

A pew against the east wall of the chancel, which had an entablature carried by Ionic pilasters framing a pair of arches may also have been an imported item; according to a plan of 8 October 1855 by the Rev. John Sime this was the Newburgh seat(13) (could Newburgh be a misrepresentation of Newbyth, the seat of the Bairds?). This woodwork was either destroyed when the church was burned by suffragettes in 1914, or removed in the restoration that followed.

The author the New Statistical Account said that the church had lately been put into excellent repair;(14) that was presumably in 1832, when MacGibbon and Ross say that a ‘pseudo south transept’ was built.(15) A small aisle was evidently built off the east end of the north nave wall around the same time, which Sime’s plan labels as the Seacliff seat, presumably meaning that it was built for the Laidlay of Seacliff family. Major restoration was carried out by Robert Rowand Anderson over an extended period between 1884 and 1894, but parts of this were lost in the fire of 1914, and other parts were modified in the subsequent restoration by Sir Robert Lorimer between 1914 and 1917.(16)

In its final state the church, which is essentially late medieval in its present form, is an unaisled cruciform building with a tower rising over the crossing of the four arms.(17) A porch covers the entrance towards the west end of the south nave wall, and there are offshoots on the east side of the north transept, and against the eastern half of the north side of the nave. The most recent addition is a low vestry against the north flank of the west chancel bay. The red sandstone walls were presumably lime-rendered, as would have been usual, and it is assumed that this is the reason it came to be known by its present name.

The church has an overall length of about 36.5 metres. The least modified parts of the structure are the chancel and south porch, presumably largely because both these parts are stone-vaulted and more robustly constructed. The chancel is a rectangle of about 12.75 by 8.93 metres. It is covered by an unribbed pointed barrel vault, the extrados of which is now protected by a slated roof, though it was presumably originally covered by stone flags; the upper courses of the walls appear to have been rebuilt to accommodate this later roof.

The chancel’s ashlar-built walls rise from a chamfered base course and are braced by widely projecting buttresses with two levels of offsets below the top weathering; these buttresses are located half way down the chancel’s length and at the east end of the north and south walls. There are no buttresses to the east wall, presumably because it was appreciated that the main thrust of a barrel vault is along its length rather than at its ends, though this is not something that appears always to have been understood. The chancel walls are not bonded in with the tower, suggesting that the chancel was built up against the latter.

On the chancel’s south flank the east bay has a window set within a deeply-splayed embrasure; it has three lights of cusped interesting tracery, but its lowest part has been blocked to allow the introduction of a post-medieval door. The west bay has a less deeply recessed window with cusped y-tracery. The east bay on the north side has a two-light window with similar tracery to the west bay on the south side, but is set within a deeply splayed embrasure like the east bay on the south. There is no window in the west bay on the north side.

The crow-stepped east gable wall is unpierced up to the level of a chamfered intake at the level of the top weathering of the buttresses that project laterally on each side. Above that intake is a circular window enclosing a quatrefoil, within a quirked hollow chamfered reveal; the provision of a single high-set circular window in the east gable has parallels with the fenestration at Fowlis Easter Collegiate Church. Above that window is the rectangular armorial panel with the arms of Crawford and a pastoral staff discussed above; its frame is decorated with square flower.

The rubble-built and unbuttressed north transept has a single two-light window in its north wall, the details of which appear to be entirely post-medieval. In the re-entrant angle at the transept’s junction with the nave is a projecting square stair turret that rises up to just below the belfry stage of the tower, where it is weathered back. Against the transept’s east flank is a projection for the stair provided to give access to the gallery there used to be within the transept.

The south transept has been rebuilt and remodelled on a number of occasions, and its original form is no longer known. It was rebuilt in 1832 as a shallow unbuttressed projection within which the pulpit was set, when it was given a three-light window with the type of simply panelled tracery that was in vogue in the earlier nineteenth century. It was rebuilt to an extended form with polished ashlar walls rising from a chamfered base course and with diagonal buttresses in about 1890, by Robert Rowand Anderson, when it was given a three-light window with intersecting tracery containing trefoils within the intersections. Its present form, with a traceried oculus in the gable of the south wall and rectangular windows with rectilinear tracery in the flanks, dates from Lorimer’s post-1914 restoration.

The tower is of rectangular plan, being slightly longer on its north-south than its east-west axis. Internally it is carried on round arches with chamfered arrises, rising from similarly chamfered responds; it is covered by a quadripartite vault. All of these elements were renewed as part of Lorimer’s post-1914 restoration, though they follow the overall forms of what was there before. Externally the tower rises a single storey above the surrounding roofs.

Early views show that there were mouldings for the roofs of the nave and south transept against its lower west and south walls, though these have now been obscured by the rebuilt roofs. There are string courses above the roof apices and at arch springing level of the belfry windows, the latter being taken around the windows as hood moulds. The two-light belfry windows are small and deeply recessed, and have a form of Y tracery. The tower is capped by a pyramidal slated roof rising behind a parapet carried on a corbel table.

The rectangular nave has been so extensively remodelled that it is very difficult to be sure that any of its details represent its historic state. The exception to this is the ashlar-built south porch, which, despite extensive renewal of several parts, is one of the church’s most attractive features. It rises from an ogee profile base course of a type that is not reflected elsewhere in the building, and has much renewed diagonal buttresses capped by replacement pinnacles; these flank the porch’s upper walls but rise independently of those walls. The most striking feature of the buttresses is the tabernacle on the flank of each on the side towards the porch entrance. Above that entrance is a further renewed tabernacle.

The pointed-arched porch entrance has mouldings in the form of triplets of filleted rolls separated by hollows towards the exterior, and pairs of hollows towards the interior. The porch is covered by a pointed barrel vault with a quadripartite pattern of ribs that rise from corbels. The door into the church is square-headed and has mouldings in the form of a pair of rolls separated by a hollow, the outer roll being filleted. Above the door is an image tabernacle.

Notes

1. Liber Cartarum Sancte Crucis, ed. Cosmo Innes (Bannatyne Club), 1840, nos 1-2, Ian Cowan, The Parishes of Medieval Scotland (Scottish Record Society), 1967, p. 209.

2.  Liber Cartarum Sancte Crucis, no 110.

3. Scotichronicon by Walter Bower, ed. D.E.R. Watt et al., Aberdeen or Edinburgh, vol. 7, 1996, pp. 291-95.

4. Calendar of Entries in the Papal Registers relating to Great Britain and Ireland: Papal Letters, ed. W.H. Bliss, et al., vol. 4, p. 253.

5. Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland, ed. Thomas Dickson, vol. 1, pp. 172 and 337.

6. Adam Inch Ritchie, The Churches of St Baldred, Edinburgh, 1880, p. 31.

7. Bruce A. McAndrew, Scotland’s Historic Heraldry, Woodbridge, 2006, p. 371, gives the arms of Crawford as gules, a fess ermine.

8. David MacGibbon and Thomas Ross, The Ecclesiastical Architecture of Scotland, vol. 3, Edinburgh, 1897, fig. 1198.

9. Calendar of Scottish Supplications to Rome, 1444-71, ed. J. Kirk, R.J. Tanner and A.I. Dunlop, Edinburgh, 1997, no 1427,

10. Register of the Great Seal of Scotland, ed. John Maitland Thomson, vol. 8, no 2225.

11. National Records of Scotland, Presbytery of Dunbar, Minutes, 1657-84, CH2/99/2, fols 115-16 and 282-83.

12. Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland, Inventory of East Lothian, Edinburgh, 1924, fig. 168.

13. National Monuments Record of Scotland, DP027703.

14. New Statistical Account of Scotland, 1834-45, vol. 2, p. 39.

15. Ecclesiastical Architecture of Scotland , vol, 3, pp 269-70.

16. Peter Savage, Lorimer and the Edinburgh Craft Designers, Edinburgh, 1980, pp 119 and 176.

17. Accounts of the church will be found in: Ecclesiastical Architecture of Scotland, vol. 3, pp. 269-79; RCAHMS Inventory of East Lothian, pp. 125-130; Christopher Wilson in Colin McWilliam, Buildings of Scotland, Lothian, Harmondsworth, 1978, pp. 467-68.

Map

Images

Click on any thumbnail to open the image gallery and slideshow.

  • 1. Whitekirk Church, exterior, from south

  • 2. Whitekirk Church, exterior, from north east

  • 3. Whitekirk Church, exterior, from north west

  • 4. Whitekirk Church, exterior, from south west

  • 5. Whitekirk Church, exterior, porch from south east

  • 6. Whitekirk Church, exterior, chancel, from south

  • 7. Whitekirk Church, exterior, south door

  • 8. Whitekirk Church, nave, north transept and tower from north west

  • 9. Whitekirk Church, exterior, tower, chancel and south transept from south east

  • 10. Whitekirk Church, exterior, arms above east window

  • 11. Whitekirk Church, interior, chancel from west 1

  • 12. Whitekirk Church, interior, chancel, from west, 2

  • 13. Whitekirk Church, interior, choir, looking east

  • 14. Whitekirk Church, interior, crossing and chancel from west

  • 15. Whitekirk Church, interior, crossing vault

  • 16. Whitekirk Church, interior, looking north east

  • 17. Whitekirk Church, interior, looking west

  • 18. Whitekirk Church, interior, south porch vault