St Andrews Holy Trinity / Kilrimont Parish Church

St Andrew's Holy Trinity, exterior, from south, 2

Summary description

A major cruciform burgh church founded in 1412, with aisles flanking both choir and nave, transepts and a north-west tower. Extensively rebuilt in 1798-1800 retaining the tower and some of the arcade piers. Restored to a medieval appearance 1909. 

Historical outline

Dedication: The Holy Trinity

The original parish church of the Holy Trinity at St Andrews was located on the headland east of the later burgh, in a location between the eastern limb of Bishop Arnold’s great cathedral and the church now known as St Rule’s.  It is likely to have been one of several churches on this crowded religious site and, given its location within what became the precinct of the Augustinian cathedral-priory, clearly pre-dated the foundation of that establishment.  The relocation of the parish church to a new site in the South Street of the burgh of St Andrews removed this inconvenient secular intrusion into the monastic precinct.

Sometime 1153 x 1159, King Malcolm IV granted and confirmed to Matthew, archdeacon of St Andrews, ‘as much as pertained to the royal dignity in the parish church of St Andrews’.(1)  The implication in the wording of this grant is that the church of Holy Trinity was evidently one wherein the revenues were subdivided. It appears subsequently that the bishops of St Andrews and the céli Dé of the pre-Augustinian monastic community also held rights in the church.  Around 1163 Richard, bishop-elect of St Andrews, made over the parish church to the church of St Andrews.  A confirmation followed 1163 x 1164 by Malcolm IV, giving the canons possession of the parish church with the land of ‘Kindargog’ (which was its endowment), the chapels of the whole shire of Kilrymont, a toft and houses in the burgh, just as Archdeacon Matthew had held it, along with the teinds and oblations from all Scots, French, Flemish, and English within and without the burgh, noting also that the gift hadbeen made by the bishop-elect.(2)  The canons’ possession of the church was also confirmed in 1163 by papal authority, when Pope Alexander III included it within the list of properties held by the canons laid out in a general charter of confirmation.(3)  In 1165 Richard, by then consecrated bishop, confirmed the canons in possession of the parish church.(4)

Papal confirmations continued through the later twelfth and earlier thirteenth century, beginning with that of Pope Lucius III to Walter, prior of St Andrews, in 1183.  This act again confirmed the gift as having been made by Bishop Richard, mentioning for the first time that the grant included the church and its cemetery.(5)  This was followed in 1187 by the confirmation of Pope Gregory VIII(6) and later that year also by Pope Clement III.(7)  In 1206 Pope Innocent III confirmed the canons’ possession of the church and its associated properties and rights, with a final confirmation from Pope Honorius III in 1216.(8)  Across this same period, further confirmations had been received from King William and bishops Hugh and Roger of St Andrews.(9)

Shortly after his transfer to St Andrews from Glasgow in 1202, Bishop William Malveisin gave Holy Trinity (in the same grant as St Michael’s, Linlithgow) to the cathedral-priory along with its chapels, lands, and oblations in proprios usus, reserving his episcopal dues and the right to have the chaplains serving in the church and chapels presented to him and his successors.(10)  The church had three chapels which can be identified from various sources: the chapel of St Gregory of Nydie, located on the River Eden near the western boundary of the parish; the chapel of St Peter in the burgh of St Andrews (on Castle Street); and the chapel of St Botulph, whose location has not been identified.(11)  No mention was made in Bishop Malveisin’s grant of a vicarage settlement.  Given his care to ensure suitable provision were he was agreeing appropriations elsewhere in his diocese, this is unusual.  The reason seems to be that the vicarage was held by the céli Dé, presumably in recognition of their residual rights in the parish church.  The separation of the parsonage and vicarage revenues between the priory and the céli Dé continued until 1255 when Bishop Gamelin consolidated the revenues and granted the whole in proprios usus to the canons of the priory.  He permitted the cure of souls to be served thereafter by one of the canons, or by suitable chaplains.(12)  Both parsonage and vicarage had been appropriated before the 1270s as the church does not appear in any independent form in the accounts of the papal tax-collector in Scotland.

Down to the first quarter of the fifteenth century the parish church continued to be located on its ancient site within the precinct of the cathedral-priory.  First moves to change that position began in the early 1400s and came to fruition in 1410, set out in an indenture of 14 November.(13)  By that document, Sir William Lindsay of the Byres gave, for the welfare of his soul, that of his wife and descendants, all of his lands on the north side of South Street in St Andrews, which he had recently purchased, to the priory with the express purpose that the parish church could be transferred to a better location on that lands.  Consent was received from Bishop Henry Wardlaw and from the prior and convent, described as ‘true patrons and rectors’.  They were to build, according to the agreement with Lindsay, ‘a church in honour of the Holy Trinity with a row of pillars on each side of the nave’. The parishioners, for their part, agreed to found a chapel dedicated to the Holy Trinity in the eastmost bay of the south aisle and to ceil and trellis (cilare et trelisare) the same, and to provide it with an altar and two framed and glazed windows each with three openings, adorned with the Lindsay arms, one window to the east and the other on the south. If Sir William wished to alter the chapel, he was liable for the costs.  Sir William, however, reserved the right for himself and his heirs to found and endow the chapel as a college, with the presentation of chaplains being in his hands but the collation to belong to the bishop of St Andrews.  This chapel was to be a place of burial for the Lindsays, if they chose, Sir William also retaining the right of free sepulture. According to the indenture, the building work was to begin at Christmas 1410 and completed ‘with all speed’.  The document concludes with provision for the obit and anniversary arrangments for Lindsay, noting that the anniversary of his death was to be celebrated for ever with the ringing of a bell through the streets of the city, and the chaplains of the Holy Rood and of Our Lady were on feast days in their masses and prayers to recommend Lindsay’s soul with a special collect.  The church appears to have been functional by 1412, when the chronicler, Walter Bower, mentions its foundation and its first vicar, William Bower ‘a man most praiseworthy, devout and kind’; he was presumably a kinsman of Abbot Bower.(14)

A supplication to the pope dated 27 May 1433 attempted to set in train the reservation made by Sir William concerning the future erection of Holy Trinity into a collegiate church.(15)   In it, his son, Sir John Lindsay, described how his father had seen that the parish church of St Andrews was too small to serve its purpose and had made over a property in the city and built on it a spacious new church.  He also recounted how his father had instituted two perpetual chaplaincies endowed for two secular chaplains in the church.  John, however, wanted to significantly endow and augment the rents of the church, which was described as ‘ruled by one canon regular’ of the cathedral-priory as vicar, and to found and endow a college of secular chaplains.  This he would only do if the patronage of the church was transferred to him and his successors, and that future rectors or vicars would be secular priests.  This, it was explained, was because the other chaplains were seculars, and frequent disputes had arisen between them and the vicar.  He therefore supplicated the pope to transfer the patronage on the death or resignation of the vicar, after he has founded the college of secular chaplaincies.  The pope granted his supplication but the plan seems never to have advanced much beyond this stage, presumably through the opposition of the prior and canons of St Andrews.

Although operational by 1412, building-work at the church appears to have extended probably into the 1420s.  A procuratory letter of Prior James Haldenstone concerning funds needed for the fabric of the cathedral church and other churches annexed to the priory refers specifically to burdens ‘on account of the repairing and building of our parish church of the city of St Andrews, which for the greater part remains in process of repair’.(16)  It is unknown how long the building work of the main body of the church took, but it is likely tht the provision of additional altars and chaplainries located in the lateral aisles of the building hastened the development.  There are multiple references to such altars and chaplainries within the new building, discussed below, but relatively few general references to the overall state of the church or its furnishings.  What appears to be the earliest surviving such reference is a deed of 22 January 1475, by which David Calvert, described as ‘citizen of St Andrews’, resigned an annual rent of 3s from his tenement on the north side of Market Street.(17)  The purpose of his gift was the maintenance and supply of a perpetually-burning oil lamp, to be hung in the choir before the high altar in honour of the holy body of the sacrament of the eucharist for the safety of the souls of himself and his family. Sasine of the annual rent was given to John Stevenson, who was described as ‘keeper of the alms table of Our Lord’s Light (luminis nostre Domine) in the parish church’, and to future keepers of the said lamp.  This is one of the earliest explicit references to the provision and maintenance of a presence lamp in a parish church in St Andrews diocese.

When rebuilt after 1410, the responsibility for maintenance of the church building was divided between the ‘rector’ (i.e. the priory) and the burgesses, with the former being responsible for the upkeep of the eastern limb.  In common with the experience at other major burgh churches, the parishioners of Holy Trinity sought to take full responsibility for a building that was a focus for their community identity.  This was realised in the mid-1490s and enacted in an indenture of 28 January 1495 between John, prior of St Andrews and his convent on one part and Robert Learmonth, provost of St Andrews and the community of St Andrews on the other, regarding the division of payment for ‘the sustentacioune uphaldin ande reparatioune’ of the choir of the church.(18)  That settlement reduced the yield of the parsonage and this was reflected in the recorded revenues of the church at the time of the Reformation.  It was then recorded that the parsonage was valued at only £5 cash but substantial amounts of produce, while the vicarage was valued at £66 13s 4d.  Both were recorded as still held by the priory of St Andrew.(19)

As with the other major burgh parish churches of eastern Scotland, Holy Trinity – both the old and the new church – housed multiple altars.  Work in the 1950s by W E K Rankin suggested that there was a total of 32 or 33 altars served by at least 35 chaplains in the church in its early sixteenth century peak of development.(20)  Some retrenchment from that total appears to have occurred before the Reformation and several of the known fifteenth or early sixteenth century altars do not occur in a summary inventory of altars, chaplainries and their resources drawn up in 1566.  In the following discussion the altars are named in order of date of first documented record but it must be borne in mind that this does not necessarily mean that the altars were only founded around that date.  We have, for example, only one early reference to an altar of St John the Evangelist, which occurs as an incidental piece of locational detail in an otherwise unrelated document of 1428, then no further reference to this altar until 1495.  Neither document tells us when exactly the altar was founded.

Chaplains of the Holy Rood and the Blessed Virgin Mary are both named in Sir William Lindsay’s 1410 indenture, which suggests that these had been founded previously in the old parish church and transferred with their endowments to the new building.(21)  In the new church the altar of the Blessed Virgin was located in the south aisle ‘forgayn the hie altar and south of the quewyr’, in what was known as St Thomas’ Aisle.  Named chaplains are first recorded from 1415 when John of Balbirnie was recorded as perpetual chaplain.(22)  An additional chaplainry was founded, or the original chaplainry refounded, before September 1428, when Bishop Henry Wardlaw confirmed a charter of David Brown, Chancellor of Glasgow and Comptroller of King James I, founding two chaplainries, one in honour of the Trinity and the other to the Blessed Virgin Mary and All Saints.(23)  Presentation of the chaplains was to be made by Brown during his lifetime and to pass on his death to the community of St Andrews, with admission by the bishop of St Andrews. The foundation was described as for the souls of King James and Queen Joan, BishopWardlaw, Brown himself, his parents and all unrequited benefactors.  The endowment comprised his tenement on the south side of South Street.  The two chaplains (of the Holy Trinity and the Blessed Virgin Mary), with the other chaplains in the chapel, were to celebrate Brown’s death annually with furnished table and lighted taper, increasing this to a daily requiem mass for the founders if the number of chaplains rose to five.

What was certainly a further chaplainry was founded at the altar of the Blessed Virgin Mary on 10 July 1482 by Duncan Yellowlock, vicar of Cramond.  His new chaplainry was in honour of the Trinity, the Virgin Mary, Saint Columba his patron, and All Saints, located at the altar of the Blessed Mary Virgin, and endowed with various annual rents.  The appointment of chaplains was to rest with Yellowlock during his life, then to pass on his death to his nephew Sir John Bonar, then subsequently to the community of St Andrews. Yellowlock desired that his nearest kinsman, Bonar, should be appointed in the first place to the chaplainry, followed by another nephew David Lamb, and then one William Christison, whose relationship with Yellowlock is unclear.(24)  In two deeds of 10 October 1487 and 28 November 1488 John Bonar, who by then was vicar of Crawford-Lindsay in Glasgow diocese, further elaborated Yellowlock’s endowment at the altar with additional revenue and an additional chaplaincy.(25)  Yet further endowment flowed to the chaplainry founded by Yellowlock. On 12 September 1503, a notarial instrument was drawn up for Mr Simon Campion, bachelor in decreets and clerk of the diocese of St Andrews, which narrated that his tenement in South Street had been acquired to the effect that he might augment the service of the chaplainry founded at the altar of the Blessed Virgin Mary by the late Mr Duncan Yellowlock, who had been his master and instructor at the university.(26)  A last gift to the same service and chaplainry came on 29 April 1527 came when Archbishop James Beaton authorised the redistribution of funds from the Rood altar to others around the church (discussed further below).  The archbishop’s act described it as ‘the principal chaplainry of the most glorious Virgin Mary’ and identified its founders as Yellowlock and Campion.(27)

Further to this ‘principal chaplainry’, between 8 November 1483 and 28 January 1484, a further chaplainry at the altar of the Blessed Virgin Mary had been founded by Thomas Dixon, bachelor in decreets and citizen of St Andrews.(28)  His charter, which received consent from William Scheves, archbishop of St Andrews, was made to God, the Virgin Mary and All Saints and to the chaplain serving at the said altar, for the safety of the souls of the archbishop, Dixon and his family, and assigned to it Dixon’s tenement on the south side of South Street. According to Rankin this chaplaincy was dedicated to St Thomas of Canterbury and the south aisle in which the altar stood had the same designation, but there is no mention of St Thomas in Dixon’s charter and the intention seems always for this to have been an endowment in the name of the Blessed Virgin Mary.(29)  The St Thomas altar and chaplainry are discussed below.

On 29 October 1501 an additional endowment was made to a chaplaincy at the principal altar of the Blessed Virgin Mary by John Bonar, the foundation being in honour of the Holy Trinity, the Virgin and All Saints, as in Brown’s original 1428 endowment. A copy of the same charter includes a certain Robert Lawson as a founder along with Bonar.(30) This act appears to have represented the fullest endowment reached at the altar.  The 1566 inventory of the rentals of altars in Holy Trinity recorded only two distinct chaplainries at the altar, the principal chaplaincy of Our Lady being valued at £22 2s and the second chaplaincy, known as Servicium dominicale (Sunday service), was valued at £11 9s 8d. The chaplaincy of St Thomas which may also have been located at this altar, was valued at £4 (see below).(31)

The second of the known pre-1410 subsidiary altars was that of the Holy Cross or Rood.  Endowments in favour of this altar are recorded from 2 October when Bishop Walter Traill ratified a gift made to it by Sir Duncan Marischal of two properties on the north side of North Street. (32)  As mentioned earlier, this endowed chaplainry was transferred to the new church and the chaplain was one of the two identified in Sir William Lindsay’s indenture of 1410 as bound to say masses and prayers for him after his death.  There are few subsequent references to this altar, it being nearly a century after Marischal’s grant that it next occurs in a surviving document.  This, a notarial instrument of 3 August 1490, narrated that Mr John Dallas, chaplain of the altar of the Holy Rood in the church of St Andrews, had resigned a piece of land in the burgh that beloged o him by virtue of his service at the altar into the hands of Robert Aikman bailie of St Andrews.(33)  Additional property was assigned to the Rood altar in 1509, a notarial instrument that year narrating that Mr Micheal Nairn, vicar of Forgan, ‘for special favour which he bears to the Holy Cross’, went to a piece of waste land belonging to the monks of Lindores in North Street, and there resigned into the hands of William Young bailie of St Andrews, an annual rent of 7s 6d upliftable from that waste land.(34)

In the early sixteenth century it was found that services at the Rood altar were not being properly or regularly provided but that the altar itself was abundantly endowed to meet that requirement.  To make better provision for the daily Rood altar mass, therefore, by a Deed of Erection dated 29 April 1527, Archbishop James Beaton reallocated a substantial part of its resources around various other altars.(35)  The deed stated that the parish church of St Andrews took precedence over other parish churches within the realm both in age and importance. In Beaton’s view it ought, therefore, to have had the best and most ornate service and would be provided with the wherewithal for elaborate ceremony by the chorister-priests if a suitable stipend was available to them. It went on to state that to deliver this the community of the city had suggested that the endowments of the Holy Cross altar, described as ‘abundant and [exceeding] the needs of that altar’, could be redistributed among the chaplain-choristers and that fuller services could be offered at a list of chaplainries.   The list included the two altarages of the chaplain of St Bartholomew the Apostle; the altar of All Saints; the chaplainry of St Magdalene; the principal chaplainry of the most glorious Virgin Mary founded by Duncan Yellowlock, sometime vicar of Cramond, and Simon Campion; an altar of St Columba and St Brigit ; an altar of St Nicholas Bishop; a chaplainry of St Fergus Bishop; a chaplainry of St Thomas the Apostle; a chaplainry of St Fillan (Felan) Abbot. With the advice of Patrick Hepburn, prior of St Andrews, Sir Thomas Preston, vicar of Holy Trinity, Sir Alexander Swinton, perpetual chaplain of the Rood altar, and the provost, bailies, council and community of St Andrews, as donators and patrons of the said altar and the other named altars, Beaton assigned the altar’s revenues among the rector of the choir, ten chaplain-choristers, the curate of the church, and the parish clerk or his substitute, so that the daily mass could be more regularly celebrated at the altar of the Holy Cross than it had been for some time, as only one priest had attended infrequently, whuch had been contrary to the terms of the original foundation.   There is no record of the sums that were reallocated in 1527, but post-Reformation records show that the chaplain serving at the Rood altar was still well resourced.  In the 1566 inventory of the rentals of Holy Trinity’s altars, the chaplaincy of the Holy Rude was valued at £13 11s 2d.(36)

What may have been a new altar rather than a further transference from the old church was that of the Holy Trinity itself.  This was a distinct altar from the high altar of the church and it was recorded that in 1412, at the building of the new church an aisle of the Holy Trinity was erected by the citizens of St Andrews in honour of Sir William Lindsay of the Byres’.  This aisle was located at the east end of the south side of the choir, between the eastmost pillar of the choir arcade and the east wall of the church (see above for description of the chapel).(37)  Sir William Lindsay alluded to the possible increase in the number of chaplains serving in the chapel and his son, Sir John presumably also had the chantry function of this family burial-place in mind when he supplicated the pope in 1433 that he might erect Holy Trinity into a collegiate church, but we are generally lacking in detailed evidence for the endowment of the altar and chapel of the Holy Trinity.  For one of its most important endowments we are reliant on post-Reformation sources.  A Great Seal charter of 6 June 1609 to Sir Thomas Hamilton of Binnie, bestowed on him amongst other lands and rights, the patronage of the ‘Ladie Chapell of Drem’ in East Lothian which had been founded by Sir William lord Lindsay of Byres, and later annexed to the chaplainry and altar in the parish church of St Andrews at the ‘trinitie altar’ situated in the part called ‘the lord lyndesayis ile’.(38)  At the Reformation the fruits of the chaplainry of the Holy Trinity were recorded at only £10 value.(39)

The next recorded altar is that of St John the Evangelist.  Reference to it occurs indirectly in a charter of 1428 which names lands pertaining to that altar as one of the boundaries in an otherwise unrelated property transaction.(40)  It is not until 30 July 1495 that a second reference to the ‘tenement of the altar of St John the Evangelist founded in the parish church’ is again recorded.(41)  Rankin was unfamiliar with the 1428 reference and suggested that the existence of an altar to John the Evangelist in Holy Trinity was doubtful, proposing instead that it may have been a mistaken reference to an altar with a dedication to same saint in St Salvator’s college: the earlier reference, which pre-dates the founding of the collegiate church, shows that Rankin was wrong in that suggestion.(42)  It is not named in the 1566 inventory and remains one of the more obscure of the altars within the parish church.

Three altar dedications are first recorded in 1431: All Saints, St Fergus and St Laurence.  The earliest reference to the first two occurs jointly in a surviving document on 28 January 1431 in a charter by William Cairns, vicar of Glamis, which created two chaplainries with provision for chaplains in the ‘new parish church of St Andrews’, the endowment being made in honour of the Trinity, the Virgin Mary, and St Fergus, bishop and confessor, whom Cairns described as his patron.  As the following description indicates, the two altars were adjacent, occupying the two south-western bays of the nave.  The first chaplainry was located at the altar of All Saints, which Cairns had erected, which was located in the south aisle of the nave on the west side of the south door, and the other was at the altar of St Fergus bishop and confessor, which was located at the west-most pillar ‘nearest the west gable of the said church’ on the south side.  The value of the All Saints chaplainry was £12 12s, the right of presentation to belong to Cairns, passing on his death to the community of St Andrews.(43)

The next surviving notice of All Saints in a charter of 26 February 1462 whereby Alexander Ramsay, citizen of St Andrews, having founded a new chaplainry at the altar of All Saints ‘behind the door of the nave of the church on the south side’, in honour of the Trinity, the Virgin Mary, and All Saints, assigned to it an annual rent of 10 merks. The presentation of the chaplain to was pertain to Ramsayfor life, and then on his death in was to pass to the community of St Andrews.(44)  On 4 April 1476 Elizabeth Reid, Ramsay’s widow, issued a charter narrating that her late husband with her consent had intended to found a new chaplainry at the altar of All Saints through the disposition of a tenement and annual rent for the said chaplainry and also a chaplainry appointed by the King.  In accordance with those wishes, she gave, with the consent of King James III, a tenement on the north side of South Street, yielding rents to the value of £1 10s.  A Great Seal confirmation at mortmain was received on 10 April 1476.(45)

In 1527 the chaplains serving at All Saints altar received some of the funds reallocated by Archbishop James Beaton from the Rood altar, as discussed above.  The altar was amongst those listed in the 1566 inventory of the rentals of altars in Holy Trinity.  The original William Cairns chaplaincy was valued at £12 12s and Ramsay’s chaplainry at £1 10s, showing no increase on their founding endowments.(46)

Cairn’s second chaplainry, at the altar of St Fergus, was also endowed with rents to the value of £12 12s, with the patronage to remain with him for his lifetime and then to pass to the community of the burgh.(47)  For such a well-endowed chaplainry, it is surprising that there is no further record of either it or the altar at which it was located until 2 May 1507, when James Braid, chaplain at the altar made a series of gifts of land, annual rents and ornaments.(48)  Braid rebuilt the altar and adorned it with a painted ‘tabernacle’, remade the old silver chalice, obtained from James IV a bone of St Triduana, part of the neck bone and joint of St Fergus from Glamis, and part of the jaw of St Bonoc (?) from David Rhynd, the curate of Leuchars. To preserve the relics he caused to be made a silver shrine weighting 15 oz. He also gave a chained book written with his own hand, containing the services and lessons of the saints, a small missal written by himself, and a whole set of mass vestments for the priest. Furthermore, he also constructed a wooden screen around the altar and made a iron ‘herss’ on the altar to hold seven brass candlesticks.  Finally, he bought an image of St Triduana from Flanders and a image of St Brendan, both of which were also placed at St Fergus’s altar.  All of this liturgical material, books, relics etc were recorded in an inventory drawn up in 1525.(49)  Although clearly a very well-equipped and endowed altar, in 1527 the chaplainry of St Fergus was amongst those which benefited from the redistribution of funds from the Rood altar by Archbishop James Beaton, as discussed above.  It was listed in the 1566 inventory of the rentals of altars in Holy Trinity, where the chaplaincy of St Fergus was valued at £9 15s 4d.(50)

The third of the new chaplainries first recorded in 1431 was that of St Laurence the Martyr.  By a charter of 4 April 1431 Robert of Dryden, rector of Kinnettles, founded a chaplainry in honour of the Holy Trinity, the Virgin Mary, St Laurence Martyr and all saints, with the consent of Bishop Henry Wardlaw.  The foundation was for the souls of Dryden, the bishop, and Dryden's family, with an annual requiem mass to be carried out for Dryden by the chaplain supported by six other chaplains to be elected by him.(51)  A second chaplainry was founded at the altar in 1495, when by a charter of 14 October, John Howieson, vicar of Newtyle, executor of the testament and goods of David Calvert, citizen of St Andrews, Sir David Skinner, chaplain, and Janet Brown, heir of the deceased Sir John Brown, priest, made arrangements for a foundation in honour of the Holy and undivided Trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, the most glorious Virgin Mary, the blessed Laurence Martyr, St Peter, Our Lady and St Margaret.  Collectively, with consent from Archbishop William Scheves, they mortified annual rents with a total value of £7 15s 4d.(52) Rankin suggested that this chaplaincy was dedicated to St Peter.(53)  A feu-charter of 18 September 1518 by Archibald Blyth, chaplain of the chaplainry or altar of St Laurence, made with consent of the provost and council as patrons, set the lands belonging to the chaplainry.(54)  The altar is not listed in the 1566 inventory.

St Michael’s altar is first mentioned in a surviving charter of 1 December 1434 by Laurence of Lindores, rector of Creich and ‘inquisitor of heretical pravity within Scotland’.(55)  It narrates how having founded a new chaplainry in what was still described as the new parish church of St Andrews at the altar of St Michael, which lay on the north side of the church near the column founded by John of Carmichael in honour of the Trinity, the Virgin Mary, Michael the Archangel and St Serf, he granted the annual rents from a portfolio of properties for the souls of Henry Wardlaw, bishop of St Andrews, his family and himself, yielding annually £7 13s.  On 16 March 1446 the incumbent chaplain, Thomas Carmichael, supplicated the pope concerning his chaplainry and the conditions of its foundation.   His supplication narrated that his chaplaincy was of lay patronage and that since its foundation and donation it had been expressly stipulated by the will of the founder that the chaplain must keep continual personal residence and hold no other benefice of office.  Carmichael claimed that the fruits were so slender, yielding only £4 annually, and were inadequate to sustain both him and the burdens of his office.  He therefore supplicated the pope to dispense him to hold for life together with the said chaplaincy one other incompatible benefice, or without it two such benefices; and that he might not be freed from the requirement to reside personally at the place of his chaplaincy.(56)  On 3 January 1450 John Leon was presented to the chaplaincy by the provost and council, the position being described as made vacant by the non-residency of Thomas Carmichael.(57)

A chaplainry of the service of St Margaret appears to have been established at the altar at some date before 1550.  On 25 September 1550 Andrew Trail was described as the chaplain of the chaplainry of St Margaret at the altar of St Michael in the parish church of St Andrews.(58)  This second chaplainry is not mentioned in the 1566 inventory of the rentals of altars in Holy Trinity, where only the chaplaincy of St Michael founded by Laurence of Lindores is recorded with its value unchanged at £7 13s.(59)

The next in the sequence of chaplainries founded in the earlier fifteenth century was that located at the altar of St John the Baptist.  It is first mentioned in a charter by John Cameron, citizen of St Andrews, dated 20 January 1436.  This states that having founded a chaplainry at the altar of St John the Baptist, described as located ‘on the north side of the church near the pillar beside the north door of the choir and on the west side of the door’, Cameron mortified to God, the Virgin Mary, John the Baptist and the chaplain serving at the altar, his family tenement lying in South Street.(60) Patronage of the altar had passed to the council by 1483.(61) It was included in the 1566 inventory of the rentals of altars, valued at £8 5s 6d.(62)

Altars of St Nicholas and St Ninian are both first mentioned in 1439.  They occur in a charter of alienation, enfeofment and donation by Mariota Burn, dated 23 November 1439, made in favour of her son John. By it, she resigned property into the hands of Duncan Lambie, one of bailies of St Andrews, for sasine to be granted to John Burn, paying 8 shillings annually to altar of St Nicholas the confessor and two shillings annually to altar of St Ninian the confessor in the parish church of St Andrews.(63)  There few subsequent records of either altar.  On 17 January 1454 a payment of 20s was made to the chaplain serving at the altar of St Nicholas.(64) The chaplain of St Nicholas’s altar is not again recorded until 1515, when he was in receipt of a cash gift, and 1527, when he was one of those in Holy Trinity who benefited from Archbishop James Beaton’s reallocation of funds from the Rood altar.(65)  St Nicholas’s was included in the 1566 inventory of the rentals pertaining to the altars, when it was valued at £8 16s 10d.(66)  A reference in June 1461 to tenement pertaining to St Ninian’s altar in an unrelated charter suggests that there had been a chaplainry established before that date, but there is no record of the act of endowment or of the identity of the donor, and, beyond a 1481 reference to an ‘aisle of St Ninian’, no precise information on where it was positioned within the church.(67)  A chaplain, however, is recorded only on 24 August 1530, when Mr Andrew Fowler, described as ‘one of the chaplains of the altar of St Ninian’, was one of several who exchanged tenements belonging to his altar in St Andrews with the Dominicans, who were looking to consolidate their property in the burgh.(68)  The reference to more than one chaplainry is confirmed in the 1566 inventory, which also provides a tantalising glimpse of a lay confraternity, the Brethren of St Ninian.  According to the inventory, the Brethren had endowed three separate chaplainries at the altar, the first valued at £9 18s, the second at £7 11s 6d, and the third at £4 7s 8d.(69)  This, unfortunately, appears to be our only surviving record of the existence of such a confraternity functioning in association with the church of the Holy Trinity.

St Katherine’s altar was evidently already in existence before its first appearance on 8 August 1449, when there is reference to 16s rent owed to it by William Wemyss.(70)  The altar was refounded after 29 September 1466 when David Kay, rector of Idvies, and Sir John Anderson, rector of Muckhart, jointly issued a charter recording their intention to found a chaplainry in Holy Trinity at an altar to be built by them.  With the consent of Bishop Patrick Graham, they mortified one tenement each in St Andrews to the Holy Trinity, the Virgin Mary, St. Katharine the Virgin, and to the said altar and the chaplain serving thereat.(71)  The value of this chaplaincy, as given in the 1566 inventory, was £13 18s.(72)  Augmentation of the endowment came on 17 September 1506 when William Dot, chaplain of the altar, added to its resources.(73)  Probably the last pre-Reformation incumbent of the chaplainry demonstrated his commitment to the established forms of religion and founded an additional service at his altar.  On 12 March 1551, confirmed on 12 March 1556, Walter Marr founded one daily mass to be celebrated perpetually by the choristers priests of the choir and ‘and no others’.(74)

St Fillan, who had a local cult centre at Pittenweem, was one of the few distinctly ‘Fife’ saints to have an altar in the church in the early fifteenth century.  On 3 January 1450 Robert Pantre was presented to the altar of St Fillan, the patronage of which lay with the provost and council, valued at a substantial £11 1s 8d annually.(75)  It was amongst the chaplainries which in 1527 benefited from the redistribution of funds from the Rood altar re-distributed.(76)  The 1566 inventory gives the value of the chaplaincy of ‘St Phulan’ as £11 1s.(77)

Given the importance of the cult of St Andrew and the fact that town within which Holy Trinity was located took its name from the saint whose shrine was in the cathedral, it is odd that it is only on 2 May 1456 that reference occurs to an altar dedicated to him in the burgh church.  In a charter of that date, John Scheves, canon of Glasgow and Aberdeen, and official principal of St Andrews, narrated that he had founded a new chaplainry at the altar of St Andrew the Apostle, which was described as located ‘in the north gable (transept?) near the high altar’.  To support the chaplainry he endowed it with a portfolio of annual rents and reserved the right of presentation to himself for life, then to pass to Henry Scheves of Kilhouse and his heirs, whom failing to William Scheves, Henry’s brother. The chaplain at that date was Robert Menteith, cousin of John Scheves. The chaplain and six other chaplains were to celebrate William’s death annually with placebo and dirge the night before and a requiem mass the following morning.(78)

A second chaplaincy was founded at St Andrew’s altar on 14-16 March 1495.  David Dishington, citizen of St Andrews, founded the chaplaincy in honour of ‘the Holy and Undivided Trinity, Father, Son and Holy Ghost, the most glorious Virgin Mary and St Andrew, patron of this realm and all saints’.  With the consent of Archbishop William Scheves, and for the souls of the archbishop, himself, his family, the late John Wemyss of Kilmany, Alexander Kennedy of Orwell and Ada Elphinstone his spouse, Dishington gave his tenement on the south side of South Street.(79)  A second property attached to one of the chaplaincies is referred to in 1523 as lying on the north side of South Street.(80)  Strangely, St Andrew’s altar was not one of those which benefited from Archbishop James Beaton’s redistribution of some of the funds from the Rood altar and there is no other known surviving reference to what seem to have been a well-endowed altar with two chaplaincies before the Reformation.  In the 1566 inventory of the rentals pertaining to the altars in Holy Trinity only a single chaplaincy was recorded, valued at a mere 8d.(81)

There is a hiatus in the records of nearly eleven years before the first mention of the next ‘new’ altar, that of St Bartholomew.  Given the patchiness of the records for the twelve side altars identified between 1412 and 1457 it is dangerous to read too much into this gap, but it might reflect a division between those altars that were transferred from the old parish church plus a first group of new foundations and what appears to be a group of later fifteenth and early sixteenth century foundations.  St Batholomew’s is first mentioned in a surviving record on 15 April 1467 when a notarial instrument was drawn up narrating that Mr John Dryburgh, vicar of Carnbee, had resigned an annual rent of 28s into the hands of John Arthur, one of the bailies of St Andrews.  Arthur then gave sasine of the said annual rents to ‘a certain image of the Blessed Bartholomew the Apostle’, in the name of his altar within the parish church and the chaplain serving at it, by placing a penny upon the foot of the image.(82)  On 15 July 1479 Dryburgh provided a further endowment for the image.(83)  Prior to that, on 29 October 1478, Dryburgh had founded two chaplainries at the altar of St Bartholomew the apostle, which was described as lying ‘on the south side of the church, situated towards the west, between the altar of St Fergus on the north and the south wall of the said church’, that is west of the south porch but standing in the south aisle space rather than against an aisle pier, where St Fergus’s altar was placed.  This grant was made for the safety of the souls of Andrew Dryburgh, John Dryburgh’s late father, Janet, his mother, Margaret, Mr John Brown sometime vicar of Arbirlot(?) and Andrew Howieson, and the souls of himself, his brothers, sisters and unrequited benefactors.(84)  The first chaplainry had an annual value of £11 18s 4d, and the second chaplainry of £12.(85) On 16 January 1480 Dryburgh made a further endowment of the altar.(86)

A third chaplainry at St Bartholomew’s altar came into being by a charter of 2 November 1490, whereby Robert Pantyre, rector of Methil, assigned a range of annual rents in St Andrews for its foundation.  The foundation, specifically at this altar, was made in honour of God the Holy and undivided Trinity Father Son and Holy Ghost the Virgin Mary the Blessed Matthew the Apostle and All Saints male and female, for the safety of the souls of Pantyre and his family.(87)   From later sources, Rankin established that this chaplainry had a value of £10.(88)  This ‘chaplaincy’ may have been in respect of a service at the altar rather than marking the presence of a joint dedication at the altar, which is only ever referred to as St Bartolomew’s.

A fourth chaplainry was instituted on 10 November 1521 under the terms of a contract between the brothers David and John Brown, the former late vicar of Fetteresso, for the foundation of two chaplainries; one in the aisle of St Bartholomew in Holy Trinity, and one in St Vigeans church.  David died before the contract could be fulfilled by his executors and was buried in the aisle of the Blessed Bartholomew in Holy Trinity.  The contract stipulated that the chaplains were to reside at the respective churches, but a month's absence or the taking of a concubine would disqualify them from continuing. In the event of the patrons failing to do their duty, the provost of St Andrews was to be ultimately responsible for the supply of chaplains.(89)

Presumably because there were four chaplains attached to it and therefore capable of contributing to the richer and more elaborate daily services that Archbishop James Beaton envisaged in the parish church, in1527 funds from the Rood altar were re-distributed to two chaplains of the altar of St Bartholomew the Apostle.(90)  In the 1566 inventory of the rentals of the altars in the parish church only three of the four foundations are recorded.  The first, labelled of ‘St Bartholomew’, was valued at £11 18s 4d and the second at £12, the original figures assigned in annual rents by John Dryburgh.(91) The chaplaincy of ‘St Matthew’ was valued at £10 10d.(92)

A second altar of probably much older origin makes its first appearance also in 1467.  According to Rankin, the altar of St Mary Magdalene stood at an arcade pier north of the high altar.  It is first mentioned in a surviving document dated 27 September 1467, a charter by Andrew Morrison, licentiate in both laws, founding a chaplainry at the altar of St Mary Magdalene in Holy Trinity.  For the safety and souls of the Bishop of St Andrews, his father Maurice Baxter and his mother Agnes, himself, his brothers, sister, and unrequited benefactors, and all faithful departed, he endowed the chaplainry with his tenement on the north side of South Street, yielding £10 14s 8d annual rents, and confirmed the provost and council as patrons.(93)  A one-off cash endowment for alms and masses was given on 15 May 1481 by the generous donor, the widow Margaret Durham (see altar of St James), who granted 26s 8d to the chaplain serving at the altar.(94) The chaplainry was one of the several in the parish church which in 1527 received funds redistributed from the Rood altar on the instructions of Archbishop James Beaton.(95)  It was recorded in the 1566 inventory of altars in Holy Trinity, still valued at £10 14s 8d.(96)

The cult of the Holy Blood, which had a particularly strong following amongst members of the merchant community and which may have been made popular in Scotland through its popularity in the Flemish towns with which Scottish merchants were trading, was present in Holy Trinity before 1472.  On 6 March 1472 a gift of 4 shillings was made to the chaplain serving the altar of ‘St Sanguinis’ in the parish church by Thomas Brown, burgess.(97)  The endowment of the chaplainry was later valued at £16 13s 4d.(98)  No further surviving reference to the altar or chaplainry occurs until 28 April 1548, when a charter by Mr Walter Fethie and Sir Walter Mar, priests, executors of the deceased Robert Lawson, vicar of Ecclesgreig , carried out his intention to found a second chaplainry at the altar of the Holy Blood.  The chaplain who was to be appointed was to minister at the said altar for the weal of the souls of the kings of Scotland, the archbishops of St Andrews, Messrs Robert Lawson, Hugh Spens, and the said Mr Robert's father and mother, brothers and sisters and unrequited benefactors.(99)  The total endowment was valued at £11 10s 4d.(100)  Both chaplaincies occur in the 1566 inventory with the first valued in accordance with the original endowment at £16 13s 4d, and the Lawson endowment at £11 10s 6d.(101)

The altar of St James is mentioned first in a surviving charter in 1475.  On 12 May that year, William Durham, citizen of St Andrews, granted a charter whereby for founding a chaplainry at the altar of St James for the souls of himself and his family and friends he bestowed an annual rent of 10 merks upliftable from his tenement on the south side of South Street.(102)  The altar appears to have been a popular focus for devotions and on 10 June1480 Mr Stephen Mortimer, vicar of Fordoun, extended Durham’s endowment in a charter whereby in honour of the Holy Trinity, the Virgin Mary, St Katharine (Katherine) Virgin, St Palladius the his own patron, and all the saints of the heavenly court, he gave a series of annual rents, along with five merks of annual rent which the late George Young,  rector of Methil donated to the altar of St James Apostle, upon which altar is placed the image of the Blessed Katharine Virgin.(103) This image appears to be wholly unconnected with the altar of St Katherine in the church.  A new endowment for a further chaplaincy was added on 15 May 1481 by Margaret Durham, widow of William Durham, who bestowed on it a tenement on the south side of South Street, valued at £7 13s 4d.(104)  In the 1566 inventoryit emerges that the three chaplaincies at St James’s altar had different dedications.  The first was the chaplaincy of St James valued at £6 11s 8d.  Margaret Durham’s foundations appears as the chaplaincy of St Margaret, valued at £7 13s 8d.  A third chaplaincy, in the name of St Palladius, was probably also located at the altar of St James, valued at £6 10s.(105)

The altar of St Peter, which stood on the south side of the choir of the church, was the location of a chaplainry founded c.1480 by the executors of David Calvart. It was valued at £11 8d.  It is assumed that the chaplainries SS Peter, Simon and Jude the Apostle, founded on 26 August 1536 by sir Henry Carstairs and his successor William Carstairs, son and successor of Andrew Carstairs, citizen in St Andrews, were also located at St Peter’s altar.  The new chaplainries were to be sustained by a large number of annual rents on lands in St Andrews, the presentation to which would pass to the Archdeacon of St Andrews on the failure of the granters' heirs.(106) The value of the new endowment totalled only £7 8d, a somewhat slender basis upon which to sustain three chaplains.(107)  The inadequacy of the endowment might explain why in the 1566 included in the inventory only the chaplaincy of St Peter endowed c.1480 was listed, valued at £11 8d.(108)

Margaret Durham, the patroness of one of the chaplainries at the altar of St James, appears as a benefactress of a second foundation on 15 May 1481.  She is recorded as having made a grant of 2s to the chaplain serving at the altar described as ‘of the Holy Sacrament’.(109)  This is likely to be an error for to a chaplain ministering the Holy Sacrament at another altar, perhaps that of the Holy Blood.  Whatever the case, this appears to have been a one-off gift rather than a recurring annual payment and no further record of it survives.

The growing popularity in the fifteenth century of the cult of St Duthac of Tain was reflected in a mortification dated 18 April1481 by Andrew Martin, canon of Aberdeen and rector of Kincardine Oneill, which he made to that saint’s altar in Holy Trinity.  The altar appears to have been already in existence before that date, being described as ‘founded anew by the granter’, and was located in St Ninian's aisle (see above).   Martin’s endowment was of an annual rent of 19s from tenement in St Andrews on east side of the Burn Wynd, hardly a generous allotment for the sustenance of a perpetual chaplain, but the chaplainry continued and was recorded as a benefice in 1574 (see below).(110)  This initial endowment appears to have been augmented substantially in the late 1520s, Rankin stating that in1528 Gavin Dunbar, bishop of Aberdeen, executor of Edward Stewart, bishop of Orkney, founded a chaplainry at the altar for the repose of the soul of the deceased Edward, who was buried in Holy Trinity.  James Lermonth, provost of St Andrews was then the patron of the altar, and in an instrument of 1574 we learn that his kinsman, John Learmonth, had founded the chaplainry (see below).(111)  There is one final indirect pre-Reformation reference to the altar in 1538 when a tenement belonging to the altar or chaplaincy of St Duthac in the parish church of St Andrews was named in an unrelated property transaction.(112)

There is no reference to St Duthac’s altar in the 1566 inventory of that year.  Rankin suggests that this may have been because the dedication had been moved to a separate chapel in the cemetery of the church, although references to ‘in the cemetery’ could relate simply to chapels forming a lateral projection from the main body of the church building.(113)  Given the 1481 reference to the location of the altar in St Ninian’s aisle and the apparent scale of the establishment associated with the cult of St Ninian in the parish church, the latter seems to be the more likely position.  This seems to be further supported by an instrument of presentation and institution of 20 April 1574, testifying that Sir Patrick Learmonth of Dairsie, provost of the St Andrews, and patron of two chaplainries founded at ‘the altar sometime called Sanct Dothwis altar’ (one described as founded by the late John Learmonth sometime provost of St Andrews, the other by the late Mr Andrew Martin, parson of Kincardine), which were then vacant by the death of Master Thomas Bell, last chaplain, went to the former location of the altar in the church and there presented 'his loving and natural son' to the chaplainries ‘with all profits thereof for his lifetime’.(114)

The first of the popular ‘new’ cults of the later medieval period, that St Mary of Pity or Consolation, had an altar in Holy Trinity by 1491.  This new altar was founded by Richard Young, rector of Lamberton, with annual rents valued £11 9s 8d from which to sustain a chaplain.(115)  Despite the scale of this endowment, is no subsequent record of the existence of the altar or chaplaincy was found in any surviving record and it is not included in the 1566 inventory.

A second and equally poorly-documented altar and chaplaincy is first mentioned in a deed of 9 May1493.  By that act, David Moneypenny of Earlshall, canon of Moray, granted to Robert Preston, chaplain of the altar of St Anthony, which David had founded, all of the contents of his house including several beds, chandeliers etc and gave Robert a piece of wood to symbolise this arrangement.(116)  Anthony dedications are not particularly unusual and there is nothing to suggest that it was a completely new altar at the time of its first recording in the 1490s.  Nothing else, however, is known of this establishment before the Reformation.  No reference to the altar occurs in the 1566 inventory but it was noted in 1567 in the Thirds of Benefices that there had been an altar of St Anthony within the parish church of St Andrews, but of the properties of the altarage the ‘tennementis are revounous, decayit and fallin doun’, value 53s 4d.  The altar at that date pertained to the New College.(117)  This record suggests that the properties from which the annual rents to sustain the chaplaincy were drawn had already become waste prior to 1560 or very shortly thereafter, with the consequence that the endowment had failed and the benefice become effectively defunct.

It is perhaps unsurprising that it is not until the 1490s that provision appears to have been made in Holy Trinity for the cult of St Columba.  It is first metioned in a charter of 5 January 1496 by David Meldrum, canon of Dunkeld and official principal of St Andrews, by which he gave his tenement on the north side of South Street, yielding rents of £14 8s for the support of the chaplainry founded by him.  This was described as located in the aisle or chapel of the Blessed Columba Abbot and Blessed Bride Virgin which had been built by him in the church.  The rector of the Univeristy of St Andrews and the provost of the burgh were named as joint patrons.(118)  St Columba’s altar was included amongst those whose chaplain in 1527 received redistributed funds from the Rood altar at the instruction of Archbishop James Beaton.(119)  It was recorded in the inventory of 1566 as ‘St Colm’s’ chaplaincy, valued at at £14 8d.(120)  As with so many of Holy Trinity’s subsidiary altars, we have no precise information as to where in the body of the church it was located.

It is towards the close of the fifteenth century that record begins to emerge of altars and chaplainries associated specifically with craft and trade guilds.  The first of these for which there is a surviving record is also one of the most ephemeral, that of St Eloi, patron saint of the hammermen’s guild, which is first recorded on 3 May 1497 when King James IV made an offering at ‘St Eloi’s bred’ during a visit to the city.(121).  A chaplainry was supported at the altar before 26 May 1511, on which date John Henderson, priest of the diocese of St Andrews, gave one merk of annual rent to the chaplainry of the ‘altar of St Elege bishop’ in the parish church.(122)  It is likely that the chaplainry had been instituted by the guild but there is no exisiting documentary record to prove that beyond question.  Unfortunately, despite its association with a prominent craft association, there is no further known record of the altar or chaplainry: it occurs in neither the 1566 inventory nor in the Books of Assumption.

The late medieval popularity of the apocryphal mother of the Blessed Virgin Mary was reflected at St Andrews in the presence of an altar dedicated to St Anne.  St Anne’s altar had been established by1498, the date of its first mention, when it was recorded as receiving certain rents.(123)  On 19 January 1515, David Learmonth of Clatto, provost of St Andrews, made a gift of 26s to the chaplain of the altar of St Nicholas and 40s to the chaplain the altar of St Anne.(124)  No further trace of the altar is recorded in a surviving pre-Reformation or immediately post-Reformation source, such as the 1566 inventory or the Books of Assumption.  This absence led Rankin to propose that the chaplainry may have been located at another altar as a secondary dedication or service, but there is equally no evidence to support that suggestion.(125)

St Martin’s altar was first mentioned in a charter of 3 September 1501 when Andrew Stewart, bishop of Moray, granted to the chaplain there, for the souls of his family and the royal family, a tenement in St Andrews. Following his death patronage was to pass to John Spens, sub-chantor of the cathedral of Moray, then to David Spens his brother, and subsequently to the rector and dean of the University of St Andrews.(126)  A chaplain of the altar, Walter Fethy, was named on 5 January 1541 as overseeing a divorce case between Elizabeth Kinloch and William Ramsay of Brackmont.(127)  That incidental reference is the last mention of the altar or chaplaincy in any surviving pre-Reformation source and they are also not mentioned in the 1566 inventory.

There is a single reference surviving to an altar and chaplaincy of St Barbara.  A notarial instrument of 12 June 1505 narrated that Margaret Boone in St Andrews had resigned into the hands of John Crawford, bailie of St Andrews, an annual rent of 40s.  Crawford had then given sasine to Sir Archibald Blithe, priest, in name of the Blessed Barbara Virgin and Martyr and the altar of the same and chaplain serving there in the parish church.(128)  The specific reference in the instrument to altar and chaplain appears to render Rankin’s suggestion that this was a service at another (unspecified) altar untenable, but a 1545 reference to a mass of St Barbara to be performed at the altar of saints Peter, Paul and Laurence (see below) further confuses the situation.  There is, however, no further information from which to develop a clearer picture, the altar not being amongst those recorded in the 1566 inventory.

Perhaps the most obscure reference to any altar in the parish church is a curious reference in a notarial instrument of 23 June 1508 which narrates that William Waucht, citizen of St Andrews, had amongst several other requests ordained that an annual rent of 17s was to be united to ‘the chaplainry and altar of the mother of St Sebastian’ which had been founded in the church by John Waucht.(129)  There is no reference to such an altar or even to a more likely altar to St Sebastian, who was a popular late medieval ‘plague saint’, in any account relating to Holy Trinity.  There is, however, record of ‘St Bastean’s land’, which was a small tenement in the town.(130)

The second of the ‘trade’ altars, that of St Aubert, was in existence before 1536 when it was first mentioned receiving annual rents: it was under the patronage of the Baxters guild.(131)  There are no subsequent pre-Reformation references to the altar and nor does it appear in the the 1566 inventory.  It does, however, occur in a notarial instrument of 7 April 1567 which recorded that Mr Martin Geddie, one of the bailies of St Andrews, gave sasine to David Miles, deacon of the baxter craft of St Andrews, in name of the chaplain of the chaplainry of ‘St Hubert’, which had been founded by the deacon and brethren of the said craft in the parish church of St Andrews, in a waste tenement on the east side of Baker Street in the burgh which had pertained to the altar.(132)

The last altars to which there is reference in the pre-Reformation records of Holy Trinity are those of SS Peter, Paul and Laurence and St Stephen.  This altar might not be distinct from that of St Laurence first recorded in 1431 (see above), which Rankin suggested also had a chaplaincy of St Peter attached to it, but it does seem to be distinct from the altar of St Peter, which was located in the choir of the parish church.  The altar of saints Peter, Paul and Laurence is recorded in a notarial instrument of 5 June 1545 which narrated how on 5 September 1544 Margaret Brown, out of a spirit of devotion, had appointed Sir Bernard Young as her procurator.  On 5 June 1545 Young, for the glory of God, the Blessed Mary Virgin, the Blessed Peter and Paul, St Barbara Virgin and Martyr and all saints and for the safety of the souls of the foresaid Margaret, her father and mother, Sir John Brown, Sir David Skinner, William Bawyne (?Brown), Alexander Brown, David Scott, Bernard Young, Walter Mar, and Messers Walter Futhe and John Todrig  and unrequited benefactors alive and dead, had appointed a mass of St Barbara to be celebrated yearly and weekly on every third Tuesday at the altar of St Peter and St Paul and St Laurence in the parish church of St Andrews by four chaplains.(133)  St Stephen’s altar has one brief reference to it in the register of the collegiate church of Crail, which records the existence of a chaplain serving there.(134)  No clear reference to either of these altars survives in the 1566 inventory.

Only thirty distinct altars, plus the high altar, can be identified with confidence from the above evidence.  It is clear that there were additional services to other saints added to these, such as that of St Margaret that was added to St Michael’s altar, and it seems likely that Rankin interpreted chaplains of those services as serving at separate altars.  This number, however, still reveals Holy Trinity to have been a very substantial establishment comparable to the great burgh churches of Dundee, Edinburgh, Haddington or Perth in both numbers of altars and relative numbers of clergy.  It is clear that as the parish church of the burgh it attracted substantial investment from the burgesses that might otherwise have been expected to flow to the cathedral, had the parochial cure simply been served from an altar in the nave of that church.  The comparative richness of the endowment, indeed, might be a reflection of a degree of competition – or conflict – with the cathedral clergy, and a statement of the townsfolk’s independence of mind.

The catalogue of saints or cults represented in the altar dedications in Holy Trinity contains few surprises.  Indeed, the only true ‘exotic’ is the dedication to St Mary of Pity/Consolation, a devotion that was associated particularly with the Augustinian order and which seems to have enjoyed some popularity in Scotland from the later fifteenth century.(135)  The majority of dedications present are to ‘universal’ saints who were popular across Europe in the Middle Ages, like John the Baptist, John the Evangelist and Michael.  ‘Scottish’ saints are well represented, with Columba, Duthac, Fergus, Fillan and Ninian provided with altars.  The dates of the first record of the altars of Duthac and Ninian tally well with the expansion in the popularity of their cults from local to national significance, beginning in the fourteenth century but with an explosion of interest in the fifteenth.  The development of the Ninian cult at Holy Trinity and its associated confraternity is particularly striking, the loss of records here being deeply frustrating in that we have no evidence for the composition of the association, its number, and what activities were embraced by it.  It is the only explicit example of a religious guild associated with the parish church but the presence of a Holy Blood altar suggests that there might have been others, or at least religious processions and similar events are likely to have been organised by the craft and trade guilds.  The guild merchant, which had strong associations with the cult, perhaps organised the Holy Blood processions.(136) It is striking that only two altars directly associated with craft guilds are recorded, St Aubert for the bakers and St Eloi for metalworkers, although it is possible that the altar of St Nicholas, who was favoured as a patron by seamen, might have been associated with the merchants’ guild, while St Bartholomew might likewise have been patronised by the skinners.  The comparatively slender evidence for such guild-associated cults in comparison to the position in the burgh churches of Dundee, Edinburgh, Haddington or Perth, however, does suggest that the St Andrews trade associations were relatively small and perhaps lacked the resources from which to endow chaplainries at ‘trade’ altars in the manner of their brethren in the major trading centres of the east coast.

Notes

1. Regesta Regum Scottorum, i, The Acts of Malcolm IV, ed G W S Barrow (Edinburgh, 1960), no.120 [hereafter RRS, i].

2. RRS, i, no.239.

3. Liber Cartarum Prioratus Sancti Andree in Scotia (Bannatyne Club, 1841), 55 [hereafter St Andrews Liber].

4. St Andrews Liber, 132-133.

5. St Andrews Liber, 58

6. St Andrews Liber, 63

7. St Andrews Liber, 68

8. St Andrews Liber, 71-81.

9. Regesta Regum Scottorum, ii, The Acts of William I, ed G W S Barrow (Edinburgh, 1971), no.28; St Andrews Liber, 144-7, 149-52.

10. St Andrews Liber, 155-6.

11. S Taylor and G Markus, The Place-Names of Fife, iii, St Andrews and the East Neuk (Donington, 2009), 427-8 n.70-71, 506-511.

12. St Andrews Liber, 171-2.

13. W E K Rankin, The Parish Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews (Edinburgh, 1955), 22-24; R G Cant, The Parish Church of the Holy Trinity, St Andrews. A short account of its history and architecture (St Andrews, 1992), 4-5; StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/16c.

14. Walter Bower, Scotichronicon, eds D E R Watt and others, viii (Aberdeen, 1987), 83.

15. Calendar of Scottish Supplications to Rome, iv, 1433-1447, eds A I Dunlop and D MacLauchlan (Glasgow, 1983), no 45; I B Cowan and D E Easson, Medieval Religious Houses: Scotland, 2nd edition (London, 1976), 228.

16. J H Baxter (ed), Copiale Prioratus Sanctiandree (Oxford, 1930), no.65 (p.120).

17. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/64c.

18. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/134c.

19. J Kirk (ed), The Books of Assumption of the Thirds of Benefices (Oxford, 1995), 12, 17 20, 21, 86.

20. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 51.

21. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/16c.

22. Calendar of Papal Letters to Scotland of Benedict XIII of Avignon 1394-1419, ed F McGurk (Scottish Record Society, 1976), 312.

23. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/18c.

24. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/94c, StAUL Register Book of the City of St Andrews (The Black Book), B65/1/1, fol. 1.

25. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/106c & 111c.

26. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/175c.

27. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/240c.

28. StAUL Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/97c.

29. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 55-57.

30. StAUL Chartulary of properties relating to Holy Trinity parish church, 1461-1509, B65/1/5, fols. 3v-6.

31. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, App IV, p. 138.

32. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/13c.

33. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/120c.

34. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/190c.

35. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/240c.

36. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, App IV, 138.

37. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/16c.

38. NRAS 3503/1/41/11/1.

39. Kirk (ed), Books of Assumption, 71.

40. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/18c.

41. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/136c.

42. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 85-86.

43. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/21c.

44. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/41c, StAUL, Abstract of Writs belonging to the City of St Andrews, B65/1/2, no. 105.

45. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/67c, StAUL Register Book of the City of St Andrews (The Black Book), B65/1/1, fol. 6v; Registrum Magni Sigilli Regum Scotorum, ii, 1424-1513, ed J B Paul (Edinburgh, 1882),  no 1238.

46. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, App IV, 138.

47. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/21c. 16th century rental of the altar states that Cairns gave the altar a missal, a breviary which was chained, a silvedr chalice, a stone image of St Fergus, two brass candlesticks, a desk for keeping vestments, , two vestments for the priest, two linen clothes and 2 frontals for the altar, F C Eeles, ‘The Altar of St Fergus in Holy Trinity Church’, Scottish Historical Review, ii (1902), 260-267 At 261-262.

48. Eeles, ‘The Altar of St Fergus in Holy Trinity Church’, 261-67.

49. Transcribed in full in Eeles, ‘The Altar of St Fergus in Holy Trinity Church’.  

50. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, App IV, 138.

51. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/22c, StAUL Register Book of the City of St Andrews (The Black Book), B65/1/1, fol. 1v-2r.

52. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/141c.

53. StAUL Register Book of the City of St Andrews (The Black Book), B65/1/1, fol. 10v-11r.Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 89-90.

54. NRAS 226/1.

55. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/24c; Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 92-95.

56. Calendar of Scottish Supplications to Rome, iv, 1433-1447, eds A I Dunlop and D MacLauchlan (Glasgow, 1983), no.1282.

57. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, App. no. 15.

58. Liber Officialis Sancti Andree (Abbotsford Club, 1845), 165.

59. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, App IV, 138.

60. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/26c.

61. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/95c.

62. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, App IV, 138.

63. StAUL, Records of St Mary's College, St Andrews, UYSM110/B12/2.

64. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/36c.

65. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/240c.

66. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/202c; Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, App IV, 138.

67. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/39c; NRS, Records of Thomson and Baxter, GD241/198; Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 76-77.

68. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/253c.

69. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 96-97 and App. IV, 138.

70. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, App. no. 17.

71. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/43c.

72. StAUL Register Book of the City of St Andrews (The Black Book), B65/1/1, fol. 6r; Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 86-88.

73. StAUL Register Book of the City of St Andrews (The Black Book), B65/1/1, fol. 7r.

74. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/330c.

75. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 80-81 and App. no. 16.

76. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/240c.

77. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, App IV, 138.

78. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/38c; Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 66-67.

79. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/135c.

80. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/228c.

81. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, App IV, 138.

82. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/46c.

83. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/84c.

84. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/81c.

85. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 71-74.

86. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/86c.

87. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/123c.

88. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 92.

89. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/223c.

90. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/240c.

91. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, App IV, 138.

92. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, App IV, 138.

93. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/48c; Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 91-92.

94. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/91c.

95. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/240c.

96. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, App IV, p. 138.

97. StAUL, Miscellaenous writs relating to properties with connections to St Mary's College, St Andrews, UYSM110/B16/3.

98. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 62-64.

99. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/299c; StAUL Register Book of the City of St Andrews (The Black Book), B65/1/1, fol. 16v.

100. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 62-64.

101. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, App IV, 138.

102. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/60c.

103. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/88c; StAUL Register Book of the City of St Andrews (The Black Book), B65/1/1, fol. 3.

104. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/91c; StAUL Register Book of the City of St Andrews (The Black Book), B65/1/1, fol. 8v-9r; Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 81-84.

105. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, App IV, 138.

106. StAUL Records of St Salvator's College, St Andrews, UYSS110/AE/8.

107. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 98-99.

108. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 98-99.

109. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/91c.

110. NRS, Records of Thomson and Baxter, GD241/198; Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 76-77.

111. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 76-77.

112. Calendar of the Laing charters, A.D. 854-1837, belonging to the University of Edinburgh, ed J Anderson (Edinburgh, 1899), no.420.

113. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 77.

114. NRS Register House charters, 1st series, RH6/2313.

115. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 57-58.

116. StAUL Muniments of the University of St Andrews, UYUY150/1, fol. 48r-50v; CJ Lyon, A History of St Andrews, Episcopal, Monastic, Academic and Civil (Edinburgh 1837), ii, App 35, no. 1.

117. Kirk (ed), Books of Assumption, 65.

118. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/143c; Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 74-75.

119. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/240c.

120. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, App IV, 138.

121. Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland, eds T Dickson and J B Paul, i (Edinburgh, 1877, 333; Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 77-78.

122. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/194c.

123. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 68-69.

124. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/202c.

125. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/202c.

126. Lyon, A History of St Andrews, ii, App 35, no.2.

127. Liber Officialis Sancti Andree, no.127.

128. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/182c; Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 71.

129. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/187c.

130. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 99.

131. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 70-71.

132. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/351a.

133. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/296c; Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 89-90.

134. C Rogers (ed), Records of the Collegiate Church of Crail (Grampian Club, 1877), 30; Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity, 99.

135. There was an altar of St Mary of Consolation, founded in 1491, located in St John’s church in Perth (qv).  A figure of St Mary of Pity is a key element in a retable from St Michael’s, Linlithgow, depicting the Crucifixion: J S Richardson, ‘Fragments of altar retables of late medieval date in Scotland’, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 62 (1927-8), 197-224 at 213.

136. D Ditchburn, ‘The “McRoberts Thesis” and Patterns of Sanctity in Late Medieval Scotland’, in S Boardman and E Williamson (eds), The Cult of Saints and the Virgin Mary in Medieval Scotland (Woodbridge, 2010), 177-194 at 179.

Summary of relevant documentation

Medieval

Synopsis of Cowan’s Parishes: The church was granted to the priory of St Andrews by Richard, bishop of St Andrews c.1163. Prior to this date it pertained to the Culdees of St Andrews. In 1255, both the vicarage and parsonage teinds were collated to the priory with the cure served by one of the canons. An attempt was made in 1507 to erect it into a college, under the patronage of Lindsay of Byres, but this was not successful.(1)

1153 x 1159 Malcolm IV confirmed to Matthew, archdeacon of St Andrews, the royal interest in the parish church of St Andrews (Preterea quantum ad regalem spectat dignitatem concedo ei parochialem ecclesiam de Sancto Andrea et carta presenti confirmo).(2) (However, the church of Holy Trinity, St Andrews, was evidently a church in which the revenues were subdivided. It appears that the bishop of St Andrews and the céli Dé of St Andrews also held rights in the church)

1163 x 1164 Malcolm IV confirmed the parish church with the land of ‘Kindargog’ (which was its endowment), the chapels of the whole shire of Kilrymont, a toft and houses in the burgh, just as Archdeacon Matthew held it with tithes and oblations from all Scots, French, Flemish, and English within and without the burgh. It was noted as a gift of Richard, bishop-elect of St Andrews.(3)

1163 Pope Alexander III confirmed the church of Holy Trinity, St Andrews (to the priory of St Andrews).(4)

1165 x 1169 Richard, bishop of St Andrews, gave the parish church of Holy Trinity, St Andrews, with all the chapels of the shire of Kilrymont and also the church’s landed endowment of Kindargog to the priory of St Andrews. The grant also included a toft in the burgh with its houses built by Matthew the archdeacon. The parish church was given with tithes and oblations applying to all individuals living within the parish, whether Scots, French, English or Flemish within or without the burgh.(5)

1165 x 1166 Richard, bishop of St Andrews, confirmed (general confirmation) the church of Holy Trinity, St Andrews, with the land of Kindargog (its endowment) and all chapels within the shire of Kilrymont with tithes and oblations of all Scots, French, English, and Flemish both within and without the burgh. He also gave a toft (with houses) formerly held by Matthew, archdeacon. It is confirmed as a gift of Richard, bishop of St Andrews.(6)

1165 x 1169 William I confirmed (general confirmation) the gift of Richard, bishop of St Andrews of the parish church with the endowment of Kindargog, all the chapels of the whole shire of Kilrymont, with a toft in the burgh with houses built on the toft and with all tithe and oblations within/without the burgh (Scots, French, et al).(7)

1178 x 1184 Hugh, bishop of St Andrews, confirms (general confirmation) the church of Holy Trinity, St Andrews, as a gift of Bishop Richard following the same terms as the bishop’s charter.(8)

1198 x 1199 Roger, bishop of St Andrews, confirms (general confirmation) the church of Holy Trinity, St Andrews, with the land of Kindargog as its endowment; with all the chapels of the whole shire of Kilrymont and tithes and oblations from all inhabitants (Scots, French, etc) within and without the burgh. It also confirms a toft with houses in the burgh held by Archdeacon Matthew; gifts of Bishop Richard.(9)

1183 Pope Lucius III confirmed the church of Holy Trinity, St Andrews, with its cemetery and chapels, lands, and oblations as a gift of Bishop Richard. In 1187, Pope Gregory VIII confirmed the parish church of the Holy Trinity in the city of St Andrews with chapels and land. It was confirmed in the same terms by Clement III in 1188, Innocent III in 1206, and Honorius III in 1216.(10)

1202 x 1204 William Malveisin, bishop of St Andrews, conceded (concedere) the churches of Holy Trinity, St Andrews, and Linlithgow to the cathedral priory with chapels, lands, and oblations in proprios usus just as other religious bodies hold other churches in usus proprios; save for episcopalibus and also the right to have the chaplains presented to them.(11)

Chapels

The church had three chapels which can be identified. The chapel of St Gregory of Nydie was located near the boundary of the parish of Holy Trinity, while the chapel of St Peter was located in St Andrews itself (on Castle Street). A third chapel is known, namely the chapel of St Botulph. However, its location has not been identified (Place Names of Fife vol 3, pp. 427-8, fns. 70-1; 506-11).

1228 Alexander II confirmed (general confirmation) the church and its rights in the same terms as above.(12)

[Foundation of new church c.1410-12]

1410 (14 Nov) William Lindsay of the Byres gave, for his soul, that of his wife and descendants, all his lands in the city of St Andrews to the priory of St Andrews so that the parish church may be transferred for its betterment on to the said lands, with consent of Henry, bishop of St Andrews and the prior and convent, as true patrons and rectors, so that they might build ‘a church in honour of the Holy Trinity with a row of pillars on each side of the nave’.(13) (see footnote below for full indenture).

1412 Walter Bower refers to the foundation of the new parish church of St Andrews and its first vicar, William Bower, ‘a man most praiseworthy, devout and kind’ [presumably a relative].(14)

1450 George Young (perpetual vicar of Methil), has a perpetual chaplaincy without cure in the church (£4, not specified where).(15)

1463 (28 Sept) Richard Wyly (archdeacon of Brechin, papal nuncio and collector) enjoined to collect 1/3 of the proceeds from indulgences granted to several churches (St Salvator’s in St Andrews and Holy Trininty, St Andrews are the only churches specified), the money to be used for a crusade against the Turks. The indulgence at Holy Trinity which had previously been granted [no other record of this indulgence], was to take place on 10 July 1464.(16)

1467 (3 Jan) Instrument of Sasine narrating that Andrew Kidd (Kyd), citizen of St Andrews, as procurator for Andrew Morrison, licentiate in both laws, resigned in the hands of Alexander Stewart, one of the bailies of St Andrews, a range of annual rents belonging to Kidd as a gift to the altar he founded in the parish church [not clear which altar this refers to].(17)

1475 (22 Jan) David Calvert, citizen of St Andrews, resigned in the hands of Alexander Lamb, one of the bailies thereof, 3s of annual rent from his tenement in Market Street on the north side thereof, between the land of Walter Brown on the east and the land of Robert Schivas  on the west, for the maintenance and supply of an oil lamp and light thereof burning day and night, hanging in the choir of the parish church before the high altar in honour of the holy body of the sacrament of the eucharist for the safety of the souls of himself and his family. Lamb gave sasine of the said annual rent to John Stevenson, citizen keeper of the alms table of Our Lady of Light (luminis nostre Domine) in the parish church, and to the keeper of the said lamp, in name thereof, by delivery of a penny.(18)

1495 (28 Jan) Indenture (in Scots) between John, prior of St Andrews, and his convent on one part, and Robert Learmonth, provost of St Andrews, and the community of St Andrews on the other, regarding the division of payment for ‘the sustentacioune uphaldin ande reparatioune’ of the choir of the church (see footnote below for full indenture).(19)

1527 (29 Apr) Deed of Erection by James Beaton, Archbishop of St Andrews, narrating that the parish church of St Andrews takes precedence of other parish churches within the realm both in age and importance. James initiates plan to re-distribute funds from altar of the Holy Cross to; the two altarages of the chaplain of St Bartholomew the Apostle; the altar of All Saints; the chaplainry of St Magdalene; the principle chaplainry of the most glorious Virgin Mary founded by messers Duncan Yellowlock, sometime vicar of Crammond, and Simon Campion; an altar of St Columba and St Brigit; an altar of St Nicholas Bishop; a chaplainry of St Fergus Bishop; a chaplainry of St Thomas the Apostle, presently possessed by Mr John Todrick; a chaplainry of St Fillan (Felan) Abbot (see footnote below for full text).(20)

1548-51 68 people (25 women, 43 men) from the parish registered their testaments at the St Andrews Commisary court. 27 specified burial in the parish church of the Holy Trinity, paying fees from 12s to £6.(21) 20 specified burial in the cemetery of the parish church.(22) 2 asked for burial in the Grey friars kirk, one in the chapel of St Glassen, one in St Salvator’s and one in the Cathedral. 16 did not specify a burial location.(23)

1550 Earliest surviving plan shows a low roofed projection from the main building on the south side. Rankin suggests that this was the sacristy. It was incorporated into the main building by 1587 when it was referred to as the ‘Communion aisle’.(24) Other features of the plan show the church as a 3 aisled building with an unbroken clerestory from end to end without transepts and with an entrance porch in the south west corner (near the current John Knox porch).(25)

Altars/Chaplaincies and Aisles 

All references are W E K Rankin unless otherwise noted. Rankin suggests that there were 35 chaplainries in the church located at around 32-33 altars.(26) In 1566 a summary of the Inventory of the Rentals of Altars in Holy Trinity was made (results included within each altar section).

All Saints

Stood at the southwest corner behind the door of a porch which occupied approximately the same position as the present John Knox porch.(27)

1431 (28 Jan) Charter by William of Cairns, vicar of the parish church of Glamis, creating two chaplainries with their chaplains in the new parish church of St Andrews in honour of the Trinity, the Virgin Mary, and St Fergus, bishop and confessor, his patron; one at the altar of All Saints erected by him on the west side at the door of the said church behind the wall (post parietem) and the other at the altar of St Fergus, bishop and confessor, at the pillar nearest the west gable of the said church on the south side, value £12 12s. Right of presentation belongs to Cairns, which will pass on his death to the community of St Andrew.(28)

1462 (26 Feb) Charter by Alexander Ramsay, citizen of St Andrews, whereby having founded a new chaplainry in the parish church of St Andrews at the altar of All Saints behind the door of the nave of the church on the south side, in honour of the Trinity, the Virgin Mary, and All Saints, he with consent of Elizabeth Reid his spouse, and for their and their family's souls grants an annual rent of 10 merks. Presentation of the chaplain pertains to the granter during life, and then to the community of St Andrews.(29)

1476 (4 Apr) Charter by Elizabeth Reid, widow of Alexander Ramsey, citizen of St Andrews, narrating that her late husband with her consent intended to found a new chaplainry in the parish church of St Andrews at the altar of All Saints behind the door of the nave on the south side of the church via the disposition of a tenement and annual rent for the St Andrews chaplainry and a chaplainry appointed by the King (capellano de libencia regia); she gives, with the consent of King James III and for the souls of the king and his family and her family, a tenement on the north side of South Street, value £1 10s.(30)

1478 (10 July) Charter (indebted) by Sir William Horn, chaplain of the altar of All Saints in the parish church of St Andrew, whereby with consent of the provost, bailies and council of the St Andrews city, patrons of the St Andrews altar, he leases some land belonging to the chaplaincy.(31)

1527 (29 Apr) Funds from Holy Cross altar re-distributed to the altar of All Saints (amongst others, see above deed) at the order of James Beaton, Archbishop of St Andrews.(32)

1566 Included in the Inventory of the Rentals of Altars in Holy Trinity, chaplaincy 1 valued at £12 12s, chaplaincy 2, £1 10s.(33)

Chaplains - 1478 William Horn; 1503 William Horn [different man]; 1566 John Todryg.

Blessed Virgin Mary (St Thomas of Canterbury)

Located in the south aisle ‘forgayn the hie altar and south of the quewyr’, in St Thomas Aisle.

1415 John de Balbryny, perpetual chaplain at the altar of St Mary in the parish church.(34)

1428 (12-13 Sept) Confirmation by Henry [Wardlaw], bishop of St Andrews, of a charter by David Brown, Chancellor of Glasgow and Comptroller of King James I, founding two chaplainries in honour of the Trinity and the Virgin Mary and All Saints (with presentation by him during his lifetime and then the community of St Andrews, with admission by the bishop of St Andrews) in the new parish church. The foundation is for the souls of King James and his queen Lady Joan [Beaufort], Henry [Wardlaw] bishop of St Andrews, the granter, his parents and all unrequited benefactors, and comprises his tenement on the south side of South Street The two chaplains with the other chaplains in the chapel are to celebrate his death annually with furnished table and lighted taper, increasing this to a daily requiem mass for the founders if the number of chaplains rises to five. Chaplaincy 1, £10 19s, chaplaincy 2 £11 6s.(35)

1448 (4 Apr) Thomas Pottar presented to the chaplaincy on the death of William de Turyn (chaplaincy founded by David Brown but appears to be in the patronage of the burgh and council by this stage).(36)

1482 (10 July) (chaplaincy 2) Charter by Duncan Yellowlock, bachelor in decreets, perpetual vicar of the parish church of Cramond, founding in honour of the Trinity, the Virgin Mary, St Andrews Columba his patron, and All Saints, a new chaplainry in the parish church of the Holy Trinity of St Andrews, at the altar of the Blessed Mary Virgin, and endowing the same with various annual rents, for the safety of his soul and the souls of his family. Appointment of chaplain to rest with Yellowlock during his life, then his grandson Sir John Bonar, then with the community of St Andrews. He desires his nearest kinsman Sir John Bonar be appointed in the first place to the chaplainry, then David Lamb another grandson, then William Christison.(37)

1487 (10 October) and 1488 (28 Nov) Further endowed with a second chaplaincy by his nephew, John Bonar, vicar of Crawford-Lindsay.(38) (Bonar patron after Duncan dies). Chaplaincy 1, £16 3s; chaplaincy 2 £2 3s.(39)

1483 (8 Nov - 28 Jan 1484) (chaplaincy 3) Charter by Thomas Dixon, bachelor in decreets and citizen of St Andrews for the purpose of founding a chaplainry at the altar of the most glorious Virgin Mary in the parish church grants with consent of William Scheves, archbishop of St Andrews to God, the Virgin Mary and All Saints to the chaplain serving at the St Andrews altar for the safety of the souls of the St Andrews archbishop, himself and his family, his tenement lying on the south side of South Street.(40) According to Rankin this chaplaincy was dedicated to St Thomas of Canterbury and the aisle in which the altar stood (south) received the same name.(41)

1501 (29 Oct) Chaplaincy founded by John Bonar in honour of Holy Trinity, Blessed Virgin Mary and All St Saints, at principal altar of Blessed Virgin Mary (copy of the same altar includes Robert Lawson as one of the founders).(42)

1503 (12 Sept) Notarial Instrument Mr Simon Campion, bachelor in decreets and clerk of the diocese of St Andrews, explained that his tenement lying in South Street was conquest to the effect that he might augment the service of the chaplainry founded in the parish church of St Andrews at the altar of the Blessed Virgin Mary by the deceased Mr Duncan Yellowlock, his master and instructor.(43)

1527 (29 Apr) Funds from Holy Cross altar re-distributed to the principle chaplainry of the most glorious Virgin Mary founded by messers Duncan Yellowlock, sometime vicar of Crammond, and Simon Campion (amongst others, see above deed) at the order of James Beaton, Archbishop of St Andrews.(44)

1527 (29 Apr) Funds from Holy Cross altar re-distributed to a chaplainry of St Thomas the Apostle, presently possessed by Mr John Todrick; (amongst others, see full deed under general section) at the order of James Beaton, Archbishop of St Andrews.(45)

1530 (24 Aug) Chaplain Hugh Ednem is one of several who exchanges tenements belonging to his altar in St Andrews with the Friar Preachers.(46)

1530 (24 Aug) Chaplain John Todrik, is one of several who exchanges tenements belonging to his chaplaincy of St Thomas (founded by the deceased Mr David Brown, chancellor of Glasgow) in St Andrews with the Friar Preachers.(47)

1544 (12 Sept) Notarial Instrument narrating that Sir James Lermonth of Balcome,  provost of St Andrews, with consent of the bailies and council, patrons of the chaplainry of the Blessed Mary Virgin founded in the parish church of the Holy Trinity by the deceased Mr Duncan Yellowlock, vacant of deceased of Mr James Bonar chaplain and last possessor thereof gave the St Andrews chaplainry to Sir Alexander Muncur chaplain, one of the choristers of the St Andrews church and passing to the Altar of Our Lady in the St Andrews church invested the St Andrews chaplain therein by delivery of a chalice, book, and vestments of the St Andrews altar.(48)

1566 Included in the Inventory of the Rentals of Altars in Holy Trinity, chaplaincy of Our Lady valued at £22 2s. Second chaplaincy known as Servicium dominicale (Sunday service) valued at £11 9s 8d. Chaplaincy of St Thomas may also have been at this altar, valued at £4.(49)

1572 (25 Mar) David Muir, one of the founders of Our Lady altar in the parish church of St Andrews, noted as an unrecanted catholic.(50)

Mary of Piety/Pity/Consolation

1491 Founded by Richard Young, rector of Lamberton/Langton, value £11 9s 8d.(51)

Holy Blood

1472 (6 Mar) Gift of 4 shillings to the chaplain serving the altar of ‘St Sanguinis’ in the parish church of St Andrews (first reference to altar). Gift by Thomas Brown, burgess.(52) Valued at £16 13s 4d.(53)

1530 (24 Aug) Sir Peter Barrie, chaplain of the altar of the Holy Blood, is one of several who exchanges tenements belonging to his altar in St Andrews with the Friar Preachers.(54)

1548 (28 Apr) Charter by Mr Walter Fethe, and Sir Walter Mar, priests, executors of the deceased Robert Lawson, vicar of Eglisgreg and empowered to act on his behalf for carrying out his intention to found a chaplainry at the altar of the Holy Blood in the parish church of the Holy Trinity of St Andrews. Chaplain who shall be appointed to officiate at the St Andrews altar for the weal of the souls of the kings of Scotland, the archbishops of St Andrews, Messrs. Robert Lawson (Lawsoun), Hugh Spens and the St Andrews Mr Robert's father and mother, brothers and sisters and unrequited benefactors.(55) Valued at £11 10s 4d.(56)

1566 Included in the Inventory of the Rentals of Altars in Holy Trinity, chaplaincy 1 of Holy Blood valued at £16 13s 4d, chaplaincy 2 at £11 10s 6d.(57)

Holy Cross

1394 (2 Oct) Walter, Bishop of St Andrews, ratifies gift made by Sir Duncan Marichal of two lands in perpetuity on the north side of North Street in St Andrews between the land of William Ram on the east and John Wright on the west to the altar of the Holy Rood in the parish church.(58)

Pre-1412 Located in earlier church, refounded in new church. Probably founded by the citizens, value £13 11s 2d.(59) Chaplain of the Holy Rude mentioned in 1410 charter by William Lindsay, to say prayers and masses for St Andrews William after his death.(60)

1490 (3 Aug) Notarial instrument narrating that Mr John Dolace, chaplain of the altar of the Holy Rood in the church of St Andrews resigned into the hands of Robert Aikman bailie of St Andrews a certain piece of land belonging to him by reason of his service at the St Andrews altar.(61)

1509 Notarial instrument narrating that Mr Micheal Nairn, vicar of Forgan for augmentation of divine worship and of the chaplainry of the Holy Cross in the parish church of St Andrews and for special favour which he bears to the Holy Cross in which parish he was born passed to a waste land of the Abbot and convent of the monastery of Lindores lying in North Street, and there resigned in the hands of William Young bailie of St Andrews an annual rent of 7s 6d upliftable from the St Andrews waste land.(62)

1566 Included in the Inventory of the Rentals of Altars in Holy Trinity, chaplaincy of the Holy Rude valued at £13 11s 2d.(63)

Holy Sacrament?

1481 (15 May) Margaret Durham (see altar of St James) grants 2s to the chaplain serving at the altar ‘of the Holy Sacrament’.(64) [Holy Blood?]

Holy Trinity (High altar)

1412 At the building of the new church the Aisle of the Holy Trinity was erected by the citizens of St Andrews in honour of Sir William Lindsay of the Byres’ at the east end of the choir on the south side thereof between the east most pillar and the east wall of the church’.(65)

1567 In Thirds of benefices chaplainry of the Holy Trinity in the church value £10.(66)

St Andrew

Stood at the north gable of the church near the high altar.

1456 (2 May) Charter by John Schivas, doctor of decreets, canon of Glasgow and Aberdeen, and official principal of St Andrews, who having founded a new chaplainry at the altar of St Andrew the Apostle in the north gable near the high altar, gives and grants a range of annual rents to the altar and chaplain for the safety of his soul and those of his family and friends. Presentation to granter during life then to Henry Scheves of Kilhouse and heirs, whom failing to William Scheves, brother of the St Andrews Henry. Robert Menteith, his cousin, is current chaplain. The chaplain and six other chaplains are to celebrate his death each year with placebo and dirge the night before and a requiem mass the following morning.(67)

1495 (14-16 Mar) (chaplaincy 2) Charter by David Dishington, citizen of St Andrews, for founding a chaplainry at the altar of St Andrew in the parish church of the St Andrews city in honour of the Holy and Undivided Trinity, Father, Son and Holy Ghost, the most glorious Virgin Mary and St Andrew, patron of this realm and all St Saints, gives with consent of William, archbishop of St Andrews for the souls of the archbishop, himself, his family, the late John Wemyss of Kilmany, Alexander Kennedy of Orwell and Ada Elphinstone his spouse, his tenement on the south side of South Street.(68)

1523 (22 Jan) Resignation by Sir Thomas Calvert, perpetual chaplain of the altar of St Andrew situated in the parish church of St Andrews, of an annual rent of 18 from his tenement on the north side south street.(69)

1566 Included in the Inventory of the Rentals of Altars in Holy Trinity, chaplaincy of St Andrew valued at 8d (fallen into something of disrepair by Reformation).(70)

St Anne

b.1498 First mentioned when it received certain rents.(71)

1515 (19 Jan) Charter by David Lermonth of Clatto, provost of St Andrews, making gift of 26s to the chaplain of the altar of St Nicholas and 40s to the chaplain the altar of St Anne.(72)

1527-1566 No mention between these dates of dedication; author suggests that it may have been a chaplaincy at another altar rather than a distinct location.(73)

St Anthony

1493 (9 May) David Moneypenny of Earlshall, canon of Moray grants to Robert Preston, chaplain of the altar of St Anthony, founded by the St Andrews David, the contents of his house including several beds, chandeliers, sofas etc and gives to Robert a piece of wood to symbolise this arrangement.(74)

1566 Altar had disappeared by the time of the inventory of that year.(75)

1567 In Thirds of benefices St Anthony’s altar within the parish church of St Andrews, of which the ‘tennentis are revounous, decayit and fallin doun’, value 53s 4d. Altar pertains to the New College.(76)

St Aubert/Cobert/Hubert

b.1536 When first mentioned receiving annual rents. Under the patronage of the Baxters.(77)

1567 (7 April) Notarial Instrument narrating that Mr Martin Geddie, one of the bailie of St Andrews, gave sasine to David Miles, deacon of the baxter craft of St Andrews, in name of the chaplain of the chaplainry of St Hubert founded by the deacon and brethren of the St Andrews craft in the parish church of St Andrews, in a waste tenement on the east side of Baker Street.(78)

St Barbara (possibly chaplaincy rather than altar)

1505 (12 June) Notarial instrument narrating that Margaret Boone resigned in the hands of John Crawford (Crauford) bailie of St Andrews an annual rent of 40s, whereupon the St Andrews bailie gave sasine thereof to Sir Archibald Blithe priest in name of the Blessed Barbara Virgin and Martyr and the altar thereof and chaplain serving thereat in the St Andrews parish church.(79)

St Bartholomew (Matthew)

The altar stood in the south west corner of the church against the west wall.

1467 (15 Apr) Notarial instrument narrating that Mr John Dryburgh, vicar of the parish church of Carnbee, made resignation in the hands of John Arthur, one of the bailies of St Andrews, of an annual rent of 28s, whereupon the St Andrews bailie gave St Andrewssine of the St Andrews annual rents to a certain image of the Blessed Bartholomew the Apostle in name of his altar within the parish church and to the chaplain serving thereat, by placing a penny upon the foot of the St Andrews image.(80) 1479 (15 July) John provides further endowment of image.(81)

1478 (29 Oct) Charter by John Dryburgh, bachelor in decreets, perpetual vicar of the parish church of Carnbee, founding in honour of the Holy and Undivided Trinity, Father Son and Holy Spirit, the most glorious Virgin Mary, and St Bartholomew the apostle, two chaplainries at the altar of St Bartholomew the apostle on the south side of the church, situated towards the west, between the altar of St Fergus on the north and the south wall (parietem) of the St Andrews church. Grant made for the safety of the souls of Andrew Dryburgh, his deceased father, Janet, his mother, Margaret, widow of St Andrews father, Mr John Brown sometime vicar of Arbirlot? and Andrew Howieson, and the souls of himself, his brothers, sisters and unrequited benefactors.(82) Chaplaincy 1, £11 18s 4d; chaplaincy 2, £12.(83) 1480 (16 Jan) further endowment of the chaplainry by Dryburgh.(84)

1490 (2 Nov) Charter of a range of annual rents on St Andrews given over by Robert Pantyre  master of arts and rector of the parish church of Methil for founding a chaplainry in the parish church of St Andrews at the altar of St Bartholomew in honour of God the Holy and undivided Trinity Father Son and Holy Ghost, the Virgin Mary, the Blessed Matthew, the Apostle and All Saints male and female for the safety of the souls of himself and his family.(85) Value £10.(86)

1500 (23 Dec) Presentation of James Smyth by the provost and council to the altar of St Bartholomew, vacant by the death of Sir John Roger.(87)

1521 (10 Nov) Contract for the foundation of two chaplainries by David Brown, one in the aisle of St Bartholomew and one in St Vigeans church, Arbroath (see below footnote for full text).(88)

1527 (29 Apr) Funds from Holy Cross altar re-distributed to the two altarages of the chaplain of St Bartholomew the Apostle at the order of James Beaton, Archbishop of St Andrews.(89)

1530 (24 Aug) John Simpson, one of the chaplains of the altar of St Bartholomew, founded by the deceased Mr John Dryburgh, vicar of Carnbee, is one of several who exchanges tenements belonging to his altar in St Andrews with the Friar Preachers.(90)

1566 Included in the Inventory of the Rentals of Altars in Holy Trinity, chaplaincy 1 of ‘St Bartholomew’ valued at £11 18s 4d; chaplaincy 2 at £12.(91) 1566 included in the Inventory of the Rentals of Altars in Holy Trinity, chaplaincy of ‘St Matthew’ valued at £10 10d.(92)

SS Columba and Bridget

1496 (5 Jan) Charter by David Meldrum, canon of Dunkeld and official principal of St Andrews, whereby for support of the chaplainry founded by him in the aisle or chapel of the Blessed Columba Abbot and Blessed Bride Virgin built by him in the parish church of St Andrews he grants to God, the glorious Virgin Mary, the Saints foresaid and the chaplain serving there admitted by him his tenement on the north side of South Street founded by David Meldrum, canon of Dunkeld, patronage with town council. Rector of the Univeristy and town provost to be patrons. Rental £14 8s.(93)

1527 (29 Apr) Funds from Holy Cross altar re-distributed to an altar of St Columba and St Brigit (amongst others, see above deed) at the order of James Beaton, Archbishop of St Andrews.(94)

1566 Included in the Inventory of the Rentals of Altars in Holy Trinity, chaplaincy of ‘St Colm’ valued at £14 8d.(95)

St Duthac

1481 (18 April) Mortification by Andrew Martin, canon of Aberdeen and rector of Kincardine Oneill, to the altar of the blessed Duthac (Duthat) the Confessor, founded anew by the granter, in St Ninian's aisle in parish church of St Andrews, of annual rent of 19s. Scots from tenement in city of St Andrews on east side of the Burn Wynd between lands of Walter Wilkinstoun on the south and Lawrence Myllair and John Mylne on the north.(96)

#1528 Gavin Dunbar, bishop of Aberdeen, executor of Edward Stewart, bishop of Orkney, founded a chaplainry at the altar for the repose of the soul of the deceased Edward, who was buried in the church of the Holy Trinity. James Lermonth, provost of St Andrews, was then the patron.(97)

1538 (14 Apr) Reference in an unrelated charter to a tenement belonging to the altar or chaplaincy of St Duthac in the parish church of St Andrews.(98)

1566 Altar had disappeared by the time of the inventory of that year. Rankin suggests that this may be because the dedication had been moved to a chapel in the cemetery of the church.(99)

1574 (20 Apr) Instrument of Presentation and Institution testifying that Sir Patrik Leirmonthe of Dairsie, provost of the city of Sanctandrois, patron of the 2 chaplainries founded within the parish kirk of St Andrews, city of the altar, sometime called Sanct Dothwis altar (one of them founded by umquhile John Lermounth sometime provost of St Andrews city, the other by umquhile Mr Andrew Martin, parson of Kincardine), then vacant by decease of Master Thomas Bell, last chaplain, passed to the St Andrews church and to the site of St Andrews altars, and there presented 'his loving and natural son' to St Andrews foundation of Sanct Dothew with all profits thereof for his lifetime.(100)

St Eloi

1497 (3 May) Earliest reference to altar during a visit by James IV when he made an offering at St Eloi’s bred.(101) Belonged to the Hammerman’s guild.(102)

1511 (26 May) Charter by Sir John Henderson priest of the diocese of St Andrews of a mark of annual rent which he gave in piety for support of the chaplainry of the altar of St Elege bishop in the parish church (amongst a series of other grants by Henderson).(103)

St Fergus

Located at the pillar nearest the west gable on the south side of the church.

1431 (28 Jan) Charter by William of Cairns (Karnis), vicar of the parish church of Glamis, creating two chaplainries with their chaplains in the new parish church of St Andrews in honour of the Trinity, the Virgin Mary, and St Fergus, bishop and confessor, his patron; one at the altar of All Saints erected by him on the west side at the door of the St Andrews church behind the wall (post parietem) and the other at the altar of St Fergus bishop and confessor, at the pillar nearest the west gable of the St Andrews church on the south side. Value £12 12s. Right of presentation belongs to Cairns, which will pass on his death to the community of St Andrews.(104)

1507 (2 May) James Braid, chaplain of the altar, made a series of gifts of land, annual rents and ornaments (see footnote for description).(105)

1525 An inventory of the possessions of the altar from that year is preserved. They included a missal, a large breviary, an image of the saint, and a silver chalice. Also at altar was found a relic, part of the neck bone and joint of Fergus and a bone of St Triduana, both obtained from James IV. An image of Triduana also stood upon the altar.(106) (for full list see footnotes below).

1527 (29 Apr) Funds from Holy Cross altar re-distributed to a chaplainry of St Fergus, bishop (amongst others, see full deed under general section) at the order of James Beaton, Archbishop of St Andrews.(107)

1566 Included in the Inventory of the Rentals of Altars in Holy Trinity, chaplaincy of ‘St Fergus’ valued at £9 15s 4d.(108)

St Fillan

1450 (3 Jan) Presentation of Robert Pantre to the altar of St Fillan, patronage with provost and council. Valued at £11 1s 8d.(109)

1471 (12 Mar) Presentation of John de Dulachy by the provost and council to the altar of ‘St Felan’.(110)

1527 (29 Apr) Funds from Holy Cross altar re-distributed to a chaplainry of St Fillan (Felan), Abbot (amongst others, see full deed under general section) at the order of James Beaton, Archbishop of St Andrews.(111)

1566 Included in the Inventory of the Rentals of Altars in Holy Trinity, chaplaincy of ‘St Phulan’ valued at £11 1s.(112)

St James (St Margaret and Palladius)

1475 (12 May) Charter by William Durham, citizen of St Andrews, whereby for founding a chaplainry at the altar of St James in the parish church of St Andrews for the souls of himself and his family and friends he gifts an annual rent of 10 merks upliftable from his tenement on the south side of South Street. Value £6 11s 8d.(113)

1480 (10 June) Charter by Mr Stephen Mortimer, vicar of the parish church of Fordoun in the diocese of St Andrews, whereby in honour of the Holy Trinity, the Virgin Mary, St Katharine (Katherine) Virgin, St Palladius the granter's patron, and all the St Saints of the heavenly court he gives and grants a series of annual rents, along with five merks of annual rent which the late George Young,  rector of Methil donated to the altar of St James Apostle in the parish church of St Andrews, upon which altar is placed the image of the Blessed Katharine Virgin.(114)

1481 (15 May) Charter by Margaret Durham, widow of William Durham citizen of St Andrews for founding a new chaplainry in the parish church of St Andrews at the altar of St James, granting to God, the Virgin Mary and All Saints to the St Andrews altar and its chaplain for the souls of William Scheves, Archbishop of St Andrews, and the souls of herself and her family the tenement on the south side of South Street, value £7 13s 4d.(115)

1530 (24 Aug) Sir Thomas Swinton, chaplain of St James altar, is one of several who exchanges tenements belonging to his altar in St Andrews with the Friar Preachers.(116)

1566 Included in the Inventory of the Rentals of Altars in Holy Trinity, chaplaincy of St James valued at £6 11s 8d. Chaplaincy of St Margaret at the same altar valued at £7 13s 8d. Chaplaincy of St Palladius, probably at the altar of St James, valued at £6 10s.(117)

St John the Baptist

Altar stood ‘on the north side of the church near the pillar beside the north door of the choir and on the west of the St Andrews door’.

1436 (20 Jan) Charter by John of Cameron, citizen of St Andrews, whereby having founded a chaplainry in the new parish church at the altar of St John the Baptist on the north side of the church near the pillar beside the north door of the choir and on the west side of the door, he gives, grants and mortifies to God, the Virgin Mary, John the Baptist and the chaplain serving at the altar, for the souls of the Bishop of St Andrews, himself, and his family his tenement lying in South Street council patrons by 1553.(118)

1483 (10 Jan) Charter by Sir John Peeble, chaplain of the altar of the Blessed John the Baptist in the parish church of St Andrews, leasing some lands attanched to the altar with consent of the provost, bailies and council of the city patrons of the St Andrews altar.(119)

1566 Included in the Inventory of the Rentals of Altars in Holy Trinity, chaplaincy of St John the Baptist valued at £8 5s 6d.(120)

St John the Evangelist

1428 (12-13) lands of the altar of the John the Evangelist are mentioned in an otherwise unrelated charter on that date.(121)

1495 (30 July) Reference to the ‘tenement of the altar of St John the Evangelist founded in the parish church on the east’ in an unrelated charter is only mention of the altar.(122) Rankin suggests that this is doubtful and may have been conflated with dedication to same saint in St Salvator’s.(123)

St Katherine

1449 (8 Aug) Reference to 16s rent owed by William Wemyss to the altar of St Katheirne in the parish church.(124) By 1565 the town council are patrons of the altar.

1466 (29 Sept) Charter by David Kay, doctor of decreets, rector of the parish church of Idvie (Idvy), and Sir John Anderson, rector of the parish churches of Muckhart, whereby intending to found a chaplainry in the parish church of St Andrews at an altar to be built by them, they with consent of Patrick Graham, bishop of St Andrews give grant and mortify to the Holy Trinity, the Virgin Mary, St Katharine the Virgin, and to the St Andrews altar and the chaplain serving thereat, for the safety of the souls of the bishop, themselves, and their families, one tenement each.(125)

1466 Further chaplaincy at the altar founded by David Kay and John Anderson, St Andrews burgesses. Value by 1566, £13 18s.(126)

1506 (17 Sept) Charter by William Dot, chaplain of the altar, augmenting his chaplaincy.(127)

1514 (13 Apr) Charter by Mr William Dot, chaplain at the altar of St Katherine founded in the parish church of St Andrews by the late Mr David Kay, with consent of Sir Thomas Preston perpetual vicar of the church, David Learmonth provost, patrons of the altar he gives grants and sets in feu to David King citizen of St Andrews and Elizabeth Mortimer his spouse a tenement lying in South Street.(128)

1556 (12 Mar) Charter by Sir Walter Marr (confirmation of charter from 12 March 1551), perpetual chaplain of the altar founded in the parish church of the Holy Trinity of St Andrews in honour of God and St Catherine Virgin and Martyr. He granted a foundation of one daily mass to be celebrated perpetually by the choristers priests of the choir and the St Andrews church, and no others, at the St Andrews altar of God and St Catherine.(129) (see footnote below for his motivations behind the foundation)

1566 Included in the Inventory of the Rentals of Altars in Holy Trinity, chaplaincy of St Katherine valued at £13 8d.(130)

St Laurence (SS Peter, Paul and Barbara)

1431 (12 Apr) Charter by Robert of Dryden, rector of the parish church of Kinnettles, founding a chaplainry in the parish church of St Andrews in honour of the Holy Trinity, the Virgin Mary, St Laurence Martyr and All Saints, with the consent of Henry, bishop of St Andrews, for the souls of Dryden, the bishop, and Dryden's family. Annual requiem mass to be carried out for Dryden by the chaplain with six other chaplains to be elected by him.(131)

1495 (14 Oct) Charter by Sir John Howieson, vicar of Newtyle, executor of the testament and goods of David Calvert, citizen of St Andrews, Sir David Skinner, chaplain and Janet Brown, heir of the deceased Sir John Brown, priest, whereby for founding a chaplainry at the altar of St Laurence in the parish church of St Andrews in honour of the Holy and undivided Trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, the most glorious Virgin Mary, the blessed Laurence Martyr, St Peter, Our Lady and St Margaret, they with consent of William Scheves, Archbishop of St Andrews give grant and mortify to the altar for the safety of the souls of the archbishop, Calvert, John Brown and their families the various annual rents: (value £7 15s 4d.).(132) Rankin suggests chaplaincy is dedicated to St Peter.(133)

SS Peter and Paul and Laurence

1545 (5 June) Notarial instrument narrating that on 5 September 1544 Margaret Brown, out of a spirit of devotion appointed Sir Bernard Young her procurator empowering him. Thereafter on 5 June 1545 the St Andrews Sir Bernard Young for the glory of God, the Blessed Mary Virgin, the Blessed Peter and Paul, St Barbara Virgin and Martyr and All Saints for the safety of the souls of the foresaid Margaret, her father and mother, Sir John Brown, Sir David Skinner, William Bawyne (Brown?), Alexander Brown, David Scott, Bernard Young, Walter Mar, and Messers Walter Futhe and John Todrig  and unrequited benefactors alive and dead, appointed a mass of St Barbara to be celebrated yearly and weekly on every third Tuesday at the Altar of St Peter and St Paul and St Laurence in the parish church of St Andrews by four chaplains.(134)

1566 Included in the Inventory of the Rentals of Altars in Holy Trinity, chaplaincy of St Laurence valued at £6 8s.(135)

St Martin

1501 (3 Sep) First mentioned when Andrew Stewart, bishop of Moray, granted to the chaplain of the altar of St Martin, for the souls of his family and the royal family, a tenement in St Andrews. Following his death patronage was to pass to John Spens, sub-centor of the cathedral of Moray and after him David Spens his brother and after his the rector and dean of St Andrews university.(136)

1541 (5 Jan) Walter Fethy, chaplain of the altar St Martin in the parish church of St Andrews, oversees a divorce case between Elizabeth Kinloch and William Ramsay of Brakmouth.(137)

1566 Altar had disappeared by the time of the inventory of that year.(138)

St Mary Magdalene

Stood ‘at a pillar beside the High Altar, on the north side thereof’. Upon it was an image of the saint.

1467 (27 Sept) Charter by Andrew Morrison, licentiate in both laws, founding a chaplainry in the new parish church of Holy Trinity in the city of St Andrews. He gives, grants, mortifies to God, the Virgin Mary, Mary Magdalene, patron of St Andrews altar and to the chaplain […] for the safety and souls of the Bishop, the granter's father Maurice Baxter and his mother Agnes, himself, his brothers, sister, and unrequited benefactors, and all faithful departed, his tenement lying on the north side of South Street. Confirms provost and council as patrons, Valued at £10 14s 8d.(139)

1481 (15 May) Margaret Durham (see altar of St James) grants 26s 8d to the chaplain serving at the altar.(140)

1525 (6 Feb) Sir William Smith, perpetual chaplain of the altar of St Mary Magdalene, resigned in the hands of David Winchetser, bailie, an annual rent of 20s.(141)

1527 (29 Apr) Funds from Holy Cross altar re-distributed to the chaplainry of St Magdalene (amongst others, see above deed) at the order of James Beaton, Archbishop of St Andrews.(142)

1566 Included in the Inventory of the Rentals of Altars in Holy Trinity, chaplaincy of St Mary Magdalene valued at £10 14s 8d.(143)

St Michael (Blessed Virgin Mary, Trinity and Serf, Margaret?)

Stood at the north west pillar of the nave of the church. Altar used for sealing financial transactions.

1434 (1 Dec) Charter by Laurence of Lindores, rector of the parish church of Creich and inquisitor of heretical pravity within Scotland, having founded a new chaplainry in the new parish church of St Andrews at the altar of St Michael on the north side of the church near the column founded by John of Carmichael  in honour of the Trinity, the Virgin Mary, Michael the Archangel and St Serf, grants the following lands for the souls of Henry [Wardlaw] bishop of St Andrews, his family and himself . Value £7 13s.(144)

1440 Confirmation of the terms of the foundation of the perpetual chaplaincy at altar of St Michael, of lay patronage. Chaplain must be resident (value £4). Current chaplain complains that endowment too slender and seeks dispensation to be non-resident.(145)

1450 (3 Jan) Presentation of John Leon by the provost and council to the chaplaincy found by Laurence of Lindores at the altar of St Michael vacant by the non-residence of Thomas Carmichael.(146)

1491 (16 May) Instrument narrating that Sir John Cook, chaplain of the altar of St Michael in the parish church of St Andrews resigned into the hands of William Lundie (Lundy) prior [of the] convent of St Andrews an annualrent of 5s from the tenement.(147)

1543 (15 Dec) Andrew Trail, chaplain of chaplainry of St Michael in parish church of St Andrews, assistant  Martin Balfour, professor of Papal law and official of St Andrews, adjudicates a dispute between William Myrtoun and David Myrtoun over an inheritance.(148)

1550 (25 Sept) Andrew Trail is now described as the chaplain of the chaplainry of St Margaret at the altar of St Michael in the parish church of St Andrews.(149)

1566 Included in the Inventory of the Rentals of Altars in Holy Trinity, chaplaincy of St Michael valued at £7 13s.(150)

St Nicholas

1439 (23 Nov) Charter of alienation, enfeofment and donation by Mariota de Burne in favour of her son John. She resigned into the hands of Duncan Lamby one of the bailies of St Andrews, for sasine to be granted to John de Burn, paying 8 shillings annually to the altar of St Nicholas the confessor and two shillings annually to the altar of St Ninian the confessor in the parish church of St Andrews.(151)

1454 (17 Jan) To the chaplain serving at the altar of St Nicholas in the parish church of St Andrews, 20s referred to in an otherwise unrelated charter of that date.(152)

1527 (29 Apr) Funds from Holy Cross altar re-distributed to an altar of St Nicholas, Bishop (amongst others, see full deed under general section) at the order of James Beaton, Archbishop of St Andrews.(153)

1566 Included in the Inventory of the Rentals of Altars in Holy Trinity, chaplaincy of Nicholas valued at £8 16s 10d.(154)

St Ninian

1439 (23 Nov) Charter of alienation, enfeofment and donation by Mariota de Burne in favour of her son John. She  resigned into hands of Duncan Lamby one of bailies of St Andrews, for sasine to be granted to John de Burn, paying 8 shillings annually to altar of St Nicholas the confessor and two shillings annually to altar of St Ninian the confessor in the parish church of St Andrews.(155)

1461 (1 June) Reference to tenement pertaining to the altar in an unrelated charter.(156)

1530 (24 Aug) Mr Andrew Fowler, one of the chaplains of the altar of St Ninian, is one of several who exchanges tenements belonging to his altar in St Andrews with the Friar Preachers.(157)

1566 Inventory describes three separate chaplains at the altar founded by the Brethren of St Ninian. Chaplaincy 1, £9 18s; chaplaincy 2, £7 11s 6d; chaplaincy 3, £4 7s 8d.(158)

St Peter (Simon, Jude, Blaise and Giles)

Stood on the south side of the choir of the church

c.1480 Founded  by the executors of David Calvart. Valued at £11 8d.

1536 (26 Aug) Foundation charter of chaplainries of St Peter Simon and Jude the Apostle in the parish church of the city of St Andrews [Fife] by sir Henry Carstairs and his successor William Carstairs, son and successor of Andrew Carstairs, citizen in St Andrews, to be sustained by a large number of annual rents on lands in St Andrews, listed below, the presentation to which chaplainries would pass to the Archdeacon of St Andrews in the failure of the granters' heirs.(159) Valued at £7 8d.(160)

1566 Included in the Inventory of the Rentals of Altars in Holy Trinity, chaplaincy of St Peter valued at £11 8d.(161)

St Sebastian

1508 (23 June) Curious reference in a Notarial instrument narrating that William Waucht citizen of St Andrews [amongst other things] ordained that an annual rent of 17s shall be united to the chaplainry and altar of the mother of St Sebastian founded in the church by John Waucht.(162) ‘St Bastean’s land’ was a small tenement in the town.(163)

#St Stephen

Brief reference in register of Crail, to the chaplain at the altar of St Stephen in St Andrews parish church.(164)

Post-medieval

Books of assumption of thirds of benefices and Accounts of the collectors of thirds of benefices: The Parish church parsonage (£5 cash + large amounts of produce) and vicarage £66 13s 4d, held by the priory of St Andrew.(165)

Altars and Chaplainries

St Anthony’s altar within the parish church of St Andrews, of which the ‘tennentis are revounous, decayit and fallin doun’, value 53s 4d. Altar pertains to the New College.

Chaplainry of the Holy Trinity in the church value £10.(166)

Account of Collectors of Thirds of Benefices (G. Donaldson): Third of vicarage £13 6s 8d.(167)

1574 (28 July) A supplication was made to the magistrates for repairing and mending of the kirk for the winter season.(168)

1574 (12 Nov) Earliest reference to the ‘Communion aisle’, probably what later became known as the Sharp aisle in the south transept.(169)

1576 (18 Apr) The kirk session orders that from now on all ‘transgressors, such as fornicators and adulterers’, are to be imprisoned in the steeple of the parish church’.(170)

1577 (19 Feb) Supplication made by the kirk session to the provost etc for reparation of the kirk, and taking of compt of church gear.(171)

#1580 John Geddie’s map shows the aisle mentioned above.(172)

1581 (29 Mar) Thomas Buchanan, commissioner of Fife, complains to the kirk session that certain persons were still being buried within the parish kirk despite the 1576 act by the General Assembly; kirk session pass the complaint on to the council.(173)

1584 (1 Apr) Proposal in the kirk session to make a prison for faltours [debtors, or moral faulters?] in the north part of the north aisle of the parish church.(174)

1587 (2 Aug) The parishioners ‘on the land’, [those from outside the city of St Andrews but within the parish?] warned to compear in council to give there advise on various matters, one of which was the ‘reparation and mending of the kirk’.(175)

1590 (1 Apr) Further order as above, for the gentlemen of the land to appear at the kirk session and give their opinion and support for various matters, including the ‘mending of the kirk’.(176) 15 July (1590) On the same subject the minister from his pulpit warned the gentlemen (this time named, see note below) to attend the council and consider various issues including the ‘reparation of the kirk from the parishioners upon the land’.(177)

1592 (10 Mar) Earliest reference to the building of a new church by the ‘landward’ men of St Andrews, which would in time become the south church of St Andrews. An Act of Parliament of 5 June 1592 included a complaint by these men of the expense of travelling to St Andrews for services (Acts and Proceedings of the General Assemblies of the Kirk of Scotland, iii, 549).(178)

1593 (26 Apr) Landward parishioners of St Andrews ordered to build and edify the church by the General Assembly, as had been agreed between themselves and the presbytery. The new church to be located as near as possible to the middle of the parish, according to the suit they made in parliament the previous year.(179)

1597 (23 Nov) A large group of the landward parishioners petition the kirk session to remain part of St Andrews parish, session grants them the right to remain parishioners until the following feast of Michaelmas.(180) New church finished by 25 June 1600 when the kirk session records the election of elders for the new landward parish church.(181)

[Repair of the church begins in earnest]

1598 (12 Apr) Brethren request the magistrate and council of St Andrews to chose a minister and the elders from the land to be warned to compear so that their advise may be taken ‘for repairing the kirk’.(182) Shortly after (24 May) Robert Zule was appointed collector of the contribution from the landward parishioners for the reparation of the kirk, with Patrick Guthrie to collect the towns share.(183) These men seem to have had problems cooperating as on 19 July Robert protested that, in case he got no concurrence from the treasurer collector of the second part of the taxation for repairing the church (Guthrie), that he as collector of the landward part will repair that part of the kirk begun by him, and will omit the rest.(184)

1598 (8 Nov) That day (Wednesday) it was concluded that preaching would be made on the next Friday in the Auld College Kirk, in respect that the parish church is not yet repaired, and if the council concludes to repair the church before Sunday next, the preaching will be made therein that day as well.(185)

#1642 Gordon of Rothiemay’s ‘Plan of St Andrews’, shows a corresponding aisle or chapel on the north side of the church.(186)

#c.1679 To accommodate the massive Sharp monument (archbishop murdered 1679), the east wall of the south chapel (or aisle) had been considerably raised in height.(187)

#1728 William Douglas describes the church as a ‘very ancient and stately edifice, built in the sign of a cross, with fine free stone, and at the west end a handsome spire in good repair’.(188)

#1732 John Loveday described the church as ‘a large building, but small the part emplyed’. Cant suggests this means that the north transept and adjacent parts may well have not been used and the south transept (or Sharp’s aisle) only employed for occasional communion services.(189)

#1767 Oliphant’s ‘St Andrews Delineated’ has a drawing in which the clerestory has disappeared, the outer walls of the side aisles having been in part heightened with one roof through from the wall head to the ridge over the centre of the nave and choir, thus concealing the clerestory.(190)

#1798 Contracts were signed with the heritors for the enlargement of the church (dispute over this matter had been ongoing for some time). Newly refurbished building opened on 3 Aug 1800.(191)

Statistical Account of Scotland (Rev John Adamson, 1791):

‘The parish is a collegiate church, both ministers officiate in one church, which appears to have been built in the year 1112, in the form of a cross, the north aisle was taken down long ago… The church got a considerable repair, with a new roof in 1749. Since that time some partial repairs…. A process…, in now in dependence for dividing the area and enlarging the auditory of the church’.(192)

New Statistical Account of Scotland (Revs R Haldane and George Buist, 1837 and 1838): [Long pertinent section on the church in 1838; note that bell removed but spire and tower still in place].(193)

Notes

1. Cowan, The parishes of medieval Scotland, 176.

2. RRS, i, no. 120.

3. RRS, i, no. 239

4. Scotia Pontificia, no. 50.

5. Liber Cartarum Prioratus SanctiAndree, pp. 132-33.

6. Liber Cartarum Prioratus Sancti Andree, pp. 141-4.

7. RRS, ii, no. 28.

8. Liber Cartarum Prioratus Sancti Andree, pp. 144-7

9. Liber Cartarum Prioratus Sancti Andree, pp. 149-52

10. Scotia Pontificia, no. 119, 148 & 149, Liber Cartarum Prioratus Sancti Andree, pp. 71-6, 76-81

11. Liber Cartarum Prioratus Sancti Andree. pp. 155-6, see also PNF, III, p. 539.

12. Liber Cartarum Prioratus Sanctii Andree, pp. 232-6.

13. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 22-24, Cant, The Parish Church of the Holy Trinity, pp. 4-5. Indenture that Sir William Lindsay (Lyndasay), knight, lord of Byres (Byris), gifts to the church of all his lands on the north side of South Street [in St Andrews], between the lands of the heirs of the deceased Rankin Brabner (Braboner) on the west and the common vennel which leads to the Market Cross of the city on the east, lately bought by him from Thomas of Butlar and John Scissors (Scissaris) with pertinents, so that the parish church might be transferred on to the lands with the consent of Henry [Wardlaw], bishop of St Andrews. The citizens and parishioners agree to found a chapel in honour of the Holy Trinity in the easter bay (buco) in the row of pillars on the south side of the church and to ceil and trellis (cilare et trelisare) the same, with an altar and two windows each with three openings sufficiently glazed and adorned (signatis) with the arms of the St Andrews Sir William, one on the east and the other on the south with frames (clausuris). If Sir William desires any alteration to the chapel, he is liable to pay for it, and it is lawful to William or his heirs to found and endow the chapel as a college or otherwise, the presentation of chaplains being in his hands while collation shall belong to the bishop of St Andrews, and whosoever of them wishes to be buried in the foresaid chapel shall have free sepulture. The work is to be begun at Christmas next [1410] and performed with all speed, and after the death of the St Andrews Sir William his anniversary is to be celebrated for ever with the ringing of a bell through the streets of the city, and the chaplains of the Holy Rood and of Our Lady shall on feast days in their masses and prayers recommend the soul of the St Andrews Sir William with special collect. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/16c.

14. Chron. Bower, viii, 83.

15. CSSR, v, no. 317.

16. CPL, xi, 685. No obvious connection to a feast day on 10 July, re-dedication of cathedral was 5 July.

17. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/45c, StAUL Register Book of the City of St Andrews (The Black Book), B65/1/1, fol. 7.

18. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/64c.

19. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/134c

20. Deed of Erection by James Beaton, Archbishop of St Andrews, narrating that the parish church of St Andrews takes precedence of other parish churches within the realm both in age and importance. It ought, therefore, to have the best and most ornate service and would be provided therewith by the choristers priests if a suitable stipend was secured to them. It is the desire and suggestion of the community of the St Andrews city that the endowments of the order of the Holy Cross (which are abundant and exceed the needs of that altar) may be distributed among the chaplains choristers, as also, that a fuller service may be rendered at sundry chaplainries as follow: the two altarages of the chaplain of St Bartholomew the Apostle; the altar of All St Saints; the chaplainry of St Magdalene; the principle chaplainry of the most glorious Virgin Mary founded by messers Duncan Yellowlock, sometime vicar of Crammond, and Simon Campion; an altar of St Columba and St Brigit ; an altar of St Nicholas Bishop; a chaplainry of St Fergus Bishop; a chaplainry of St Thomas the Apostle, presently possessed by Mr John Todrick; a chaplainry of St Fillan (Felan) Abbot. Therefore, with advice of Patrick Hepburn, Prior of the foresaid, Sir Thomas Preston, vicar of the St Andrews parish church, Sir Alexander Swinton, perpetual chaplain of the altar of the Holy Cross, and the provost, bailies, council and community of St Andrews, as donators and patrons of the St Andrews altar and the other altars foresaid, the Archbishop assigns and apportions the fruits, rents and profits of the St Andrews altar of the Holy Cross among the rector of the choir, ten chaplains choristers, the curate of the church, and the parish clerk or his substitute, so that the daily mass may be more regularly celebrated at the altar of the Holy Cross than has been in use for some time (one priest having attended at long intervals, contrary to the terms of the foundation). StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/240c.

21. NRS St Andrews, Register of Testaments, 1 Aug 1549-12 Dec 1551, CC20/4/1, fols. 6, 8, 10, 11, 26-7, 105-6, 116, 138-9, 162-3, 164-5,175-6, 185, 218, 219-20, 249-50, 270-1, 277, 282, 283, 292, 301, 311, 344, 358, 359-61, 362 & 369-70.

22. NRS St Andrews, Register of Testaments, 1 Aug 1549-12 Dec 1551, CC20/4/1, fols. 55-56, 59-60, 113-114, 120, 121-2, 124-5, 146-8, 157-7, 161-2, 165-6, 167-8, 170-2, 172-3, 244-5, 269-70, 343, 352, 356-7 & 363.

23. NRS St Andrews, Register of Testaments, 1 Aug 1549-12 Dec 1551, CC20/4/1, fols. 104, 153-4, 125-6, 349 & 135-36.

24. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, p.27.

25. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, p.27, Taylor, Parish church of the Holy Trinity, p.4.

26. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, p.51.

27. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 54-55.

28. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/21c.

29. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/41c, StAUL, Abstract of Writs belonging to the City of St Andrews, B65/1/2, no. 105.

30. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/67c, StAUL Register Book of the City of St Andrews (The Black Book), B65/1/1, fol. 6v.

31. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/80c.

32. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/240c.

33. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, App IV, p. 138.

34. CPL, Ben, 312.

35. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/18c.

36. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, App. no.14.

37. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/94c, StAUL Register Book of the City of St Andrews (The Black Book), B65/1/1, fol. 1.

38. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/106c & 111c.

39. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 59-61.

40. StAUL Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/97c.

41. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 55-57.

42. StAUL Chartulary of properties relating to Holy Trinity parish church, 1461-1509, B65/1/5, fols. 3v-6.

43. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/175c.

44. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/240c.

45. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/240c.

46. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/253c.

47. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/253c.

48. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/294c.

49. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, App IV, p. 138.

50. Register of St Andrews Kirk Session, 376.

51. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 57-58.

52. StAUL, Miscellaenous writs relating to properties with connections to St Mary's College, St Andrews, UYSM110/B16/3.

53. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 62-64.

54. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/253c.

55. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/299c, StAUL Register Book of the City of St Andrews (The Black Book), B65/1/1, fol. 16v.

56. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 62-64.

57. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, App IV, p. 138.

58. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/13c.

59. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 64-65.

60. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, p.24.

61. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/120c.

62. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/190c.

63. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, App IV, p. 138.

64. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/91c.

65. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 65-66.

66. Kirk, The books of assumption of the thirds of benefices, 71.

67. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/38c, Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 66-67.

68. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/135c.

69. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/228c.

70. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, App IV, p. 138.

71. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 68-69.

72. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/202c.

73. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 68-69.

74. StAUL Muniments of the University of St Andrews, UYUY150/1, fol. 48r-50v, Lyon, A History of St Andrews, ii, App 35, no. 1.

75. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 69-70.

76. Kirk, The books of assumption of the thirds of benefices, 65.

77. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 70-71.

78. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/351a.

79. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/182c, Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 71.

80. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/46c.

81. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/84c.

82. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/81c.

83. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 71-74.

84. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/86c.

85. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/123c.

86. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 92.

87. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, App. no. 23.

88. Contract for the foundation of two chaplainries by David Brown (late vicar of Fetteresso) and his brother John Brown for the benefit of their souls and those of their heirs, parents, ancestors, and all the faithful departed, and for the welfare of the St Andrews John. David died before the contract could be fulfilled by his executors, one in the parish church of St Andrews in the aisle of the Blessed Bartholomew where the St Andrews David is buried, the other in the parish church of Arbroath, where lie the bones of the parents and progenitors of the St Andrews David and John, at the altar of St Michael. They are to reside at the respective churches, but a month's absence or the taking of a concubine will disqualify them from continuing. In the event of the patrons failing to do their duty, the provost of St Andrews is ultimately responsible for the supply of chaplains, StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/223c.

89. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/240c.

90. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/253c.

91. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, App IV, p. 138.

92. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, App IV, p. 138.

93. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/143c, Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 74-75.

94. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/240c.

95. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, App IV, p. 138.

96. NRS, Records of Thomson and Baxter, GD241/198, Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 76-77.

97. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp.76-77. I have been unable to locate the original document of this foundation.

98. Laing Charters, no.420.

99. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, p.77.

100. NRS Register House charters, 1st series, RH6/2313.

101. T.A, i, p.333.

102. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 77-78.

103. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/194c.

104. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/21c. 16th century rental of the altar states that Cairns gave the altar a missal, a breviary which was chained , a silver chalice, a stone image of St Fergus, two brass candlesticks, a desk for keeping vestments, two vestments for the priest, two linen clothes and two frontals for the altar, Eeles, ‘The Altar of St Fergus in Holy Trinity Church’, 261-262.

105. These are recored in the 1525 inventory. Braid rebuilt the altar and adorned it with a painted ‘tabernacle’, remade the old silver chalice, obtained from James IV a bone of St Triduana, part of the neck bone and joint of St Fergus from Glamis, and part of the jaw of St Bonoc (?) from David Rhynd, the curate of Leuchars. To preserve the relics he made a silver shrine weighting 15 oz. He also gave a chained book written with his own hand, containing the services and lessons of the St Saints, a small missal written by himself, a whole vestment for the priest. He also constructed a wooden screen around the altar and made a iron ‘herss’ on the altar to hand 7 brass candlesticks. He bought an image of St Triduana from Flanders and a image of St Brendan, Eeles, ‘The Altar of St Fergus in Holy Trinity Church’, 261-67.

106. Transcribed in full in Eeles, ‘The Altar of St Fergus in Holy Trinity Church’, 261-67.  

107. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/240c.

108. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, App IV, p. 138.

109. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 80-81 and App. no. 16.

110. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, App. no.21.

111. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/240c.

112. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, App IV, p. 138.

113. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/60c.

114. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/88c, StAUL Register Book of the City of St Andrews (The Black Book), B65/1/1, fol. 3.

115. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/91c, StAUL Register Book of the City of St Andrews (The Black Book), B65/1/1, fol. 8v-9r, Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 81-84.

116. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/253c.

117. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, App IV, p. 138.

118. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/26c, Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 84-85.

119. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/95c.

120. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, App IV, p. 138.

121. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/18c.

122. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/136c.

123. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 85-86.

124. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, App. no. 17.

125. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/43c.

126. StAUL Register Book of the City of St Andrews (The Black Book), B65/1/1, fol. 6r, Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 86-88.

127. StAUL Register Book of the City of St Andrews (The Black Book), B65/1/1, fol. 7r.

128. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/200c.

129. ‘Understanding from divine writings and commandments that it is pious useful, and well nigh necessary for men to give alms out of the substance bestowed by God upon them as [then follow quotations from Heb. xiii.16 Luke xi.41, Proverbs xiii.8 and iii.9] and moved by which precepts’, StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/330c.

130. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, App IV, p. 138.

131. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/22c, StAUL Register Book of the City of St Andrews (The Black Book), B65/1/1, fol. 1v-2r.

132. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/141c.

133. StAUL Register Book of the City of St Andrews (The Black Book), B65/1/1, fol. 10v-11r.Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 89-90.

134. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/296c, Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 99, Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 89-90.

135. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, App IV, p. 138.

136. Lyon, A History of St Andrews, ii, App 35, no.2.

137. Liber Officialis Sancti Andree, no.127.

138. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 90-91.

139. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/48c, Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 91-92.

140. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/91c.

141. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/232c.

142. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/240c.

143. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, App IV, p. 138.

144. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/24c, Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 92-95.

145. CSSR, iv, no. 1282.

146. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, App. no. 15.

147. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/125c.

148. Liber Officialis Sancti Andree, no. 137.

149. Liber Officialis Sancti Andree, 165.

150. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, App IV, p. 138.

151. StAUL, Records of St Mary's College, St Andrews, UYSM110/B12/2.

152. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/36c.

153. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/240c.

154. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, App IV, p. 138.

155. StAUL, Records of St Mary's College, St Andrews, UYSM110/B12/2.

156. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/39c.

157. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/253c.

158. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 96-97 and App. IV, p. 138.

159. StAUL Records of St St Andrewslvator's College, St Andrews, UYSS110/AE/8.

160. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 98-99.

161. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, App IV, p. 138.

162. StAUL, Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23/187c.

163. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 99.

164. Rankin, Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, pp. 99.

165. Kirk, The books of assumption of the thirds of benefices, 12, 17, 20, 21 & 86.

166. Ibid, 65 & 71.

167. Donaldson, Accounts of the collectors of thirds of benefices, 13.

168. Register of St Andrews Kirk Session, 397.

169. Register of St Andrews Kirk Session, 384, further references in 1581, p. 453, 1590 , p.683 & 1598, p.863.

170. Register of St Andrews Kirk Session, 417. The person referred to as imprisoned in the steeple was David Wemyss of Raderny on 6 June 1598. David was held responsible for the dancing, drinking, and riot that had taken place in the town of Raderny the previous Trinity Sunday, p.893.

171. Register of St Andrews Kirk Session, 428.

172. Cant, The Parish Church of the Holy Trinity, p.9.

173. Register of St Andrews Kirk Session, 452-53.

174. Register of St Andrews Kirk Session, 524.

175. Register of St Andrews Kirk Session, 597.

176. Register of St Andrews Kirk Session, 661.

177. The gentlemen named were; John Melville of Raith, Andrew Wood of Strathwesty, John Aytoun of Kinnaldy, George Ramsay of Langraw, Martin Carstophin, portioner of Byrehills, Alexander Jardin of Smithy Green, Gavin Wemyss of Unthank and William Kinnimouth in Baldynny, Register of St Andrews Kirk Session, 678-79.

178. Register of St Andrews Kirk Session, 781-2, APS, iii, 549.

179. Acts and Proceedings of the General Assemblies of the Kirk of Scotland, iii, 801.

180. Register of St Andrews Kirk Session, 842.

181. Register of St Andrews Kirk Session, 927-28.

182. Register of St Andrews Kirk Session, 849.

183. Register of St Andrews Kirk Session, 854.

184. Register of St Andrews Kirk Session, 861

185. Register of St Andrews Kirk Session, 874-75.

186. Taylor, Parish church of the Holy Trinity, p.4.

187. Taylor, Parish church of the Holy Trinity, p.4.

188. Douglass, Some Historical Remarks on the City of St Andrews, p.10, Cant, The Parish Church of the Holy Trinity, p.15.

189. Cant, The Parish Church of the Holy Trinity, p15. See J. Loveday, Diary of a tour in 1732, 1732

190. Taylor, Parish church of the Holy Trinity, p.4.

191. Taylor, Parish church of the Holy Trinity, p.4.

192. Statistical Account of Scotland, (1791), xiii, 210.

193. New Statistical Account of Scotland, (1837 rev 1838), ix, 470.

Bibliography

Manuscripts

St Andrews University Library Special Collections (StAUL)

Abstract of Writs belonging to the City of St Andrews, B65/1/2.

Chartulary of properties relating to Holy Trinity parish church, B65/1/5.

Miscellaenous writs relating to properties with connections to St Mary's College, St Andrews, UYSM110/B16/3.

Muniments of the University of St Andrews, UYUY150/1.

Records of St Mary's College, St Andrews, UYSM110/B12/2.

Records of St Salvator's College, St Andrews, UYSS110/AE/8.

Register Book of the City of St Andrews (The Black Book), B65/1/1.

St Andrews Burgh Charters and Miscellaneous Writs, B65/23 passim.

National Records of Scotland

Records of Thomson and Baxter, GD241/198.

Register House charters, 1st series, RH6/2313.

St Andrews, Register of Testaments, 1 Aug 1549-12 Dec 1551, CC20/4/1.

Printed Primary 

Acts and Proceedings of the General Assemblies of the Kirk of Scotland, 1839-45, ed. T. Thomson (Bannatyne Club), Edinburgh.

Calendar of documents relating to Scotland, ed. J.Bain, Edinburgh 1881-8.

Calendar of the Laing charters, A.D. 854-1837, belonging to the University of Edinburgh , 1899, ed. J. Anderson, Edinburgh.

Calendar of Papal letters to Scotland of Benedict XIII of Avignon, 1976, ed. F. McGurk, (Scottish History Society) Edinburgh.

Calendar of Scottish Supplications to Rome 1433-47, 1983, ed. A.I. Dunlop and D MacLauchlan, Glasgow.

Calendar of Scottish Supplications to Rome 1447-71, 1997, ed. J. Kirk, R.J. Tanner and A.I. Dunlop, Edinburgh.

Liber Cartarum Prioratus Sancti Andree in Scotia, 1841, ed. T. Thomson (Bannatyne Club), Edinburgh.

Liber Officialis Sancti Andree, 1845, (Abbotsford Club), Edinburgh.

New Statistical Account of Scotland, 1834-45, Edinburgh and London.

Register of the Minister, Elders and Deacons of the Christian Congregation of St Andrews Kirk Session… 1559-1600, 1889-90, ed. D. Fleming (Scottish History Society), Edinburgh.

Regesta Regum Scottorum, Acts of Malcolm IV (1153-65), 1960, Edinburgh.

Regesta Regum Scottorum, Acts of William I (1165-1214), 1971, Edinburgh.

Scotia pontificia papal letters to Scotland before the Pontificate of Innocent III, 1982, ed. R. Somerville, Oxford.

Statistical Account of Scotland, 1791-9, ed. J. Sinclair, Edinburgh.

Relevant secondary works

Cant, R. C., 1992, The Parish Church of the Holy Trinity, St Andrews. A short account of its history and architecture, St Andrews.

Donaldson, G., 1949, Accounts of the collectors of thirds of benefices, (Scottish History Society), Edinburgh.

Douglass, William., 1728, Some Historical Remarks on the City of St Andrews in North Britain, London.

Eeles, F.C, 1902, ‘The Altar of St Fergus in Holy Trinity Church, St Andrews’, SHR, ii, 260-67.

Kirk, J., 1995, The books of assumption of the thirds of benefices, (British Academy) Oxford.

Lyon, C.J, 1837, A History of St Andrews, Episcopal, Monastic, Academic and Civil, Edinburgh.

Rankin, W.E.K., 1955, The Parish Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, Edinburgh.

Taylor, C., 1920, Parish church of the Holy Trinity, St Andrews, Edinburgh.

Architectural description

The first parish church at St Andrews had been a possession of the community of Culdees of Kilrymont, but in about 1163 it was granted to the Augustinian Cathedral Priory, though the vicarage teinds remained with the successors of the Culdees until the mid-thirteenth century.(1) Before the early fifteenth century the church was within the precinct of the cathedral priory, and was recorded as having been close to the east gable of the cathedral itself,(2) where it may have perpetuated the location of one of the several churches that are known to have been within the Early Christian site of Kilrymont.

Foundations located in the course of grave digging have indicated that it may have been to the south east of the cathedral and to the north of St Rule’s Church.(3) Having the parish church so closely under its superintendence may initially have had advantages for the cathedral priory, since it would have facilitated greater control over parochial affairs. Yet, by the fifteenth century, when the monastic precinct was coming to be more completely enclosed, it also had the disadvantage that the laity had rights of access across the area that the canons were increasingly regarding as their own space.

At the same time, it is likely that the parishioners had aspirations for greater freedom in what they could do with their church, especially if it was hoped that it might become the principal architectural ornament of the expanding burgh. On 14 November 1410, Sir William Lindsay of the Byres granted the parish a large site at the very heart of the burgh, to the south of the market area, and the new church was formally founded there in 1412.(4)

In his charter Lindsay stated that he was giving the land so that the prior and convent, as rector, together with the citizens and parishioners, could build a new church, with the tacit assumption that the prior would be responsible for the chancel and the parishioners for the nave. It was specified that there was to be a row of pillars on each side – meaning that it was to be flanked by aisles – and the citizens of St Andrews bound themselves to build a chapel with an altar dedicated to the Holy Trinity at the east end of the south aisle as a thank-offering to Sir William.

That chapel was to have two three-light windows, one in the east wall and the other in the south wall, in which Lindsay’s arms were to be displayed, and it was to be enclosed with parclose screens. If alterations in the design of the chapel were called for, Lindsay undertook to pay for these himself. He also made provision for himself and his heirs to found additional chaplainries within the chapel, and possibly to endow it as a college in due course; the failure of his son’s attempt to found a college in 1433 was perhaps due to the priory’s nervousness at the parish’s growing sense of independence.(5) In all of this Lindsay was anxious to make the fullest provision for prayers for his own salvation: the anniversary of his death was to be marked with the ringing of bells throughout the city, and prayers were to be offered for his soul by the chaplains of the altars of the Holy Rood and Our Lady.

There are small-scale sketched depictions of the church in two early post-Reformation views of St Andrews that probably show it still in its late medieval state. That attributed to John Geddy, of about 1580,(6) shows it from the south, and that by James Gordon, on his map of 1642, shows it from the north. These both indicate that it was a cruciform structure, with aisles running the full length of both nave and chancel – Geddy shows the aisles with crenellated parapets. A clearstorey rose above the aisles and transeptal chapels projected symmetrically on each side; a tower capped by a spire was set over the west end of the north aisle, and there was a south porch. The main difference between the two views is that Geddy shows the transeptal chapels as rising little higher than the aisles, whereas Gordon shows them as rising to the same height as the central vessel of the main body, and there is now no way of knowing which depiction was more accurate.

By 1475 there were about thirty priests attached to the church serving at least thirty-five chaplainries that had been founded at about thirty-two altars. The locations of only a relatively small number of the altars are known with certainty, and in some cases the accounts of their locations present difficulties. The founder’s chapel dedicated to the Holy Trinity, for example, was said to be ‘at the east of the choir on the south side thereof, between the eastmost pillar and the east wall of the church’; and yet the principal Lady Altar, founded in 1428, was said to be in St Thomas's Aisle ‘forgayn the hie altar and south of the queyr’.(7)

Both of those chapels are likely to have required considerable space, and it may be wondered if both could be accommodated within the south choir aisle. Lindsay’s Trinity chapel was to have an east and a south window, and he was to have the right to enlarge it at his own cost if he wished, and there was also to be the right to expand it into a college. For a chapel with such expansive requirements, could a case be made that it was in the south transeptal chapel, the only location other than the east end of the south choir aisle that could have permitted both a south and an east window? But on balance it is perhaps more likely that it was at the far east end of the south choir aisle, with the Lady Chapel to its west in the same aisle.

Of the other altars whose sites are known, those of St Andrew, St John the Baptist and St Mary Magdalene were all on the north side of the choir, some specified as being against a pier as opposed to the aisle. The altar of St Peter was on the south side of the choir, together with those of the Trinity and Our Lady. The Holy Cross altar was almost certainly associated with the screen that must have separated the nave from the choir. Two nave altars that were said to be in the south-west corner were those of St Bartholomew and St Fergus.(8) Although presumably some of these were given a certain level of spatial autonomy by being enclosed with parclose screens, as was provided for in the Trinity Chapel, there is nothing to suggest that extensions outside the main body of the building were required for any of them.

Nevertheless, both changing liturgical requirements and the continuing foundation of new altars are amongst factors that are likely to have called for new furnishing and some structural changes to the building, with the latter, for example, perhaps most commonly taking the form of the insertion of new windows. The view of the south flank of the church in John Oliphant’s St Andrews Delineatiae of 1767shows rectangular mullioned windows to the south chancel aisle of a type that would be most unusual before the years around 1500;(9) they appear to have been of the same type as those at St Leonard’s College Chapel, for example, that are themselves presumably of around the time of the foundation of that college in 1512.(10)  Perhaps these formed part of a remodelling of the founder’s chapel and the Lady Chapel, the locations of which have been discussed above.

Slight evidence of late medieval modifications to the furnishings of the church may be seen in the survival of two greatly modified choir stalls, one of which bears the arms of Gavin Dunbar, Archdeacon of St Andrews from 1504-19. It is attractive to suspect that they were part of a wholesale refitting of the choir.

Both of these operations may have stemmed from a wish on the part of the burgh to have the liturgical observance in the building that was the proudest expression of its corporate status carried out and housed in the most impressive manner that could be achieved. However, responsibility for the liturgically most important part of the church lay with the cathedral priory, as rector, and it may have been that the priory was rather less keen than the burgesses to make the required financial commitment to achieve this fine impression. But in 1494 an agreement was reached by which the priory transferred its burden of responsibility for the choir to the provost and bailies of the town, in return for a regular payment that is perhaps unlikely to have matched the expenditure the burgh was considering.(11) Where a transfer from appropriator to burgesses was agreed at other burgh churches, this was frequently the prelude to wholesale rebuilding of the eastern limb. Holy Trinity was perhaps already on a sufficiently large scale for this to be unnecessary, though the evidence just cited does suggest that it could have been associated with extensive re-ordering of the choir and its aisles.

Any attempt to understand what remains of the architecture of the medieval church has to take account of the drastic sequence of repairs and rebuilding it has undergone since the Reformation. The south transept had probably been enlarged to house the extraordinary monument to Archbishop James Sharp, following his murder on Magus Muir in 1679. In the 1790s it was said that the north transept had been ‘taken down long ago’, and the same account said that the church was repaired and reroofed in 1749.(12)

It was presumably in 1749 that the roof depicted in Oliphant’s view of 1767 was formed. That view shows that the clearstorey over the central vessel was no longer externally visible, though it is unknown if that was because it had been taken down, or because it had simply been concealed within a roof that swept down without break over both central vessel and aisles, as was to take place at Crail Church in 1815, for example. If it was not removed at that stage, it certainly was in the next stage of rebuilding.

That most drastic of the sequence of interventions followed a law suit over the capacity of the church. Under the direction of James Salisbury(13) and Robert Balfour(14) of 1798–1800, the church was almost completely rebuilt on the old foundations, apart from the tower, parts of the west front and a number of piers. Externally, the south face was treated rather starkly as a series of five tall and simply gabled bays, with the north transept projecting from the middle bay; the north side had a continuous face capped by four and a half bays, the westernmost half-bay being occupied by the tower.

Internally it seems that only part of the space was used for worship, but in that part a number of piers and arches were removed to allow wider and higher arches to be constructed that opened up the vista into the heightened aisles. A D-shaped arrangement of pews and galleries was then constructed across the width of the central vessel and aisles to provide seating at two levels, and a ceiling of curved profile ran the length of the central vessel. While photographs show that the end result externally was gaunt in the extreme, the appearance of the interior was undeniably rather elegant, if the loss of the medieval fabric can be forgiven. Subsequently, in 1863, traceried windows were cut into a number of gables to the designs of Jesse Hall, though this did little to make clear that the church was of medieval origin.(15)

The changes in attitudes that stemmed from the Scottish ecclesiological revival resulted in a reaction against what had been done at Holy Trinity, and in 1901 it was proposed that the church should be restored to its medieval appearance. In the following year Peter MacGregor Chalmers was invited to prepare his proposals for this, which were costed at £21,253.2s.3d, and by the time that work was eventually completed in 1909 costs had risen to £23,793.7s.4d.(16) With so little of the medieval fabric surviving, Chalmers saw himself as having a relatively free hand, and the result displays in full the decorative exuberance of which he was capable, drawing on a wide range of Scottish sources, from Aberdeen to Stirling.

The basic plan of central vessel flanked by aisles along its full length was reinstated with the insertion of the lost piers, while the tower over the north-west bay was of course retained, as was the surviving south transept. The north transept and south porch were rebuilt, and a tall new clearstorey surmounted by a ribbed barrel ceiling was provided. But Chalmers went beyond the medieval plan by augmenting the eastern limb with a spacious chapel against its south flank, and he added a session house to the west of the south transept, while on the north side he provided an organ chamber and vestry against the east and west sides respectively of the transept.

Internally, virtually the only identifiable medieval fabric is to be seen in a number of the nave piers, which are of cylindrical form. It may be that one source of inspiration for the form of these piers was the south transept of the cathedral as rebuilt after 1409, with the ultimate source of the idea coming from the Netherlands. The reconstruction of the cathedral transepts would have been in progress at the time that work was starting on Holy Trinity, and we can have no doubt that the parish’s leaders would have been very aware of what was happening there. Indeed, the first vicar of the relocated parish church, William Bower, was also a canon of the cathedral priory, and he was so closely involved in the work on the cathedral that he donated its rood altar.(17)

However, the piers have chamfered bases and capitals with the simplest kind of mouldings, with the only relief to the rectangular profile of the abacus being a plain bottom chamfer, and with no other ornamentation to the bell. In this the piers bear comparison with examples at Alyth and St Vigeans (both in Angus). It has been stated that the aisles were originally vaulted, and that their removal in 1798 was only accomplished with great difficulty but there is no surviving evidence to support this suggestion.

The tower rises over the west bay of the north aisle, though the only internal expression of its presence is a transverse arch across the aisle at this point. The tower itself is L-shaped, as a result of having a stair tower at its north-west corner, which is entered through a doorway in the north wall of the aisle. At belfry level, where they rest on a string course, there are paired lights or wider Y-traceried windows. A stone spire rises behind the wall-head parapet, with lucarnes at mid-height, and this interplays attractively with a smaller spirelet over the octagonal cap house that emerges at the top of the stair tower. In much of this – apart from the spirelet to the stair tower – there are similarities with the thirteenth-century tower at Crail Church, less than ten miles to the south west, and it would seem that no inconsistency was perceived in adopting a design with precedents that were about two centuries old.

Notes

1. Ian B. Cowan, The Parishes of Medieval Scotland, (Scottish Record Society), 1967, p. 176.

2. Scotichronicon, vol. 9, 1998, p. 137, quoting an addition to the Donibristle manuscript.

3. David Hay Fleming, St Andrews Cathedral Museum ,Edinburgh and London, 1931, plan 1, facing p. 2.

4. Archives of the City of St Andrews, Charters, no 16; Scotichronicon, vol. 8, 1987, p. 83; W.E.K. Rankin , The Parish Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, Edinburgh and London, 1955, pp. 20-29.

5. Ian B. Cowan and David E. Easson, Medieval Religious Houses, Scotland, 2nd ed., London edn New York, 1976, p. 228; Registra Supplicationum vol. 286, fo. 221.

6. National Library of Scotland, MS 20996, reproduced and discussed in N.P. Brooks and G. Whittington, ‘Planning and growth in the medieval Scottish burgh: the example of St Andrews’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, vol. 2, 1977, pp. 278–95.

7. W.E.K. Rankin , The Parish Church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, Edinburgh and London, 1955, pp.58 and 65.

8. ibid. pp. 54-99.

9. University of St Andrews Special Collections

10. Ian B. Cowan and David E. Easson, Medieval Religious Houses, Scotland, 2nd ed., London edn New York, 1976, p. 233.

11. Archives of the City of St Andrews, Charters, no 134.

12. Statistical Account, 1791-99, vol. 13, p. 210.

13. Howard Colvin, a Biographical Dictionary of British Architects, 4th ed., New Haven and London, 2008, p. 893

14. Ronald G. Cant, The parish church of the Holy Trinity St Andrews, (guidebook), St Andrews, 1992, pp. 17–22; John Gifford, Buildings of Scotland, Fife, London, 1988, pp. 380-2.

16. Hugh Playfair, The Town Kirk, Restoration and Ministry, 1899-1924, KInloss, 2008, pp. 35-43.

17. Scotichronicon, vol. 3, pp. 438-9.

Map

Images

Click on any thumbnail to open the image gallery and slideshow.

  • 1. St Andrew's Holy Trinity, exterior, from south, 2

  • 2. St Andrew's, exterior Holy Trinity, from south, 1

  • 3. St Andrew's Holy Trinity, exterior, from north east

  • 4. St Andrew's Holy Trinity, exterior, choir north flank

  • 5. St Andrew's Holy Trinity; exterior, from north west

  • 6. St Andrew's Holy Trinity, exterior, tower from north east

  • 7. St Andrew's Holy Trinity, exterior, tower lower levels from north east

  • 8. St Andrew's Holy Trinity, exterior, north flank from west

  • 9. St Andrew's Holy Trinity c. 1580 (Geddy, redrawn by Hay Fleming)

  • 10. St Andrew's Holy Trinity, exterior from north east before restoration

  • 11. St Andrew's Holy Trinity, exterior from south east before restoration

  • 12. St Andrew's Holy Trinity, exterior from south in 1767 (Oliphant)

  • 13. St Andrew's Holy Trinity, exterior from south west before restoration

  • 14. St Andrew's Holy Trinity, exterior, spire lucarne

  • 15. St Andrew's Holy Trinity, exterior, view of church from tower, 1

  • 16. St Andrew's Holy Trinity, exterior, view of church from tower, 2

  • 17. St Andrew's Holy Trinity, interior, tower, second floor

  • 18. St Andrew's Holy Trinity, interior before restoration, 1

  • 19. St Andrew's Holy Trinity, interior before restoration, 2

  • 20. St Andrew's Holy Trinity, interior spire

  • 21. St Andrew's Holy Trinity, interior, from west

  • 22. St Andrew's Holy Trinity, interior, south choir chapel

  • 23. St Andrew's Holy Trinity, interior, tower stairs door

  • 24. St Andrew's Holy Trinity, interior, tower, belfry

  • 25. St Andrew's Holy Trinity, interior, tower, first floor

  • 26. St Andrews, Holy Trinity, tower, east-west section

  • 27. St Andrews, Holy Trinity, tower, north elevation (Walker)

  • 28. St Andrews, Holy Trinity, tower, west elevation (Walker)

  • 29. St Andrew's, plan of possible site of early parish church within cathedral precinct (Hay Fleming)